Friday, June 14, 2024

Nutrition during pregnancy: what to eat, what not to eat?

 Nutrition during pregnancy: what to eat, what not to eat?

Pregnancy women experience physical and emotional changes. During these changes, nutrition is the most essential element for the development of the mother and the baby growing in the womb. Because, the nutritious food consumed by the mother during pregnancy determines the physical condition of the baby.

Why is nutrition necessary during pregnancy?

Overall development of the child: From the shape of the child, the development of all the organs is due to the mother's diet. In this case, pregnant women need elements like folic acid, iron, calcium, iodine and omega-3 fatty acids to play a role in the overall development of the child.

These foods help reduce the risk of health problems during pregnancy and after delivery, such as anemia, constipation, high blood pressure and diabetes.

'Even desire can interfere with a healthy diet'

Even though women are aware of the importance of nutrition during pregnancy, hormonal changes can interfere with eating.

Nausea: For some women, early morning vomiting during pregnancy can make it difficult.

In this case, you may not feel like eating food, but you should not stop eating. The amount of food is less than other times but can be eaten frequently. And food should be digestible. Nutrients such as fiber, protein and carbohydrates should be eaten in that food. Which provides energy and helps reduce vomiting.

Wanting to overeat some food and not wanting to look at anything

Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause the mouth to water at the thought of food and headache after seeing a food. In this case, eating too much food that you like to eat and not eating food that contains nutrients can affect the balance of nutritious food.

Also read this

Pregnancy: I feel nauseous, I don't like food, what should I do?

Must eat food

One of the causes of preterm birth in this situation is vitamin D deficiency. To supplement it, you can eat vegetables, fruits, whole grains, almonds, fish and olive oil.

Another is to eat enough omega fatty acids. Babies of women who take omega supplements have better visual and sensory development up to one year.

Folic acid should be taken not only during pregnancy but also three months before conception. Folic acid is a B vitamin. Which helps to make the baby's DNA and cells.

Green vegetables: Green vegetables, cabbage and broccoli can be beneficial during pregnancy. In this case, raw vegetables can be harmful.

Dairy products: Dairy products including milk, curd, curd and ghee are essential for pregnant women. Which provides protein and calcium for the development of the child during pregnancy.

Fruits: Fresh fruits keep both mother and baby healthy during pregnancy. Apples, melons, pomegranates and other seasonal fruits are beneficial.

Dry fruits: Eating dry fruits during pregnancy is very beneficial. Almonds, walnuts, cashews and other foods are rich in various vitamins, calories, fiber and omega three fatty acids. It is necessary for both mother and child.

Egg: Egg is a nutritious food. Eggs contain high amounts of protein, cholesterol, vitamin D and antioxidants, which are essential for pregnant women.

Whole grains: Pregnant women can include whole grains like oats, brown rice in their diet.

Plenty of water: Drink at least four liters of water a day. which does not allow the mother to become dehydrated. It keeps the body healthy and removes toxins from the body.

Also read this

Pregnancy: Eight Myths and Truths

How can vegetarian pregnant women complete the nutrients?

Vegetarian pregnant women can also meet their nutritional needs without eating meat. But iron, vitamin B12 and omega 3 fatty acid they may be relatively low.

It is fulfilled by supplements and some foods.

For protein, you can eat foods such as lentils, tofu, almonds and parsley seeds. Walnuts, flaxseeds, canola oil, avocados are good sources of omega-3 fatty acids. These foods should also be eaten daily.

How much to eat?

Iron: 40 grams

Protein: 65 grams

Calcium: One thousand milligrams

Folic Acid: 400 micrograms

Special attention should be paid to certain things during pregnancy.

- In this case, do not take any medicine on the advice of the doctor. In case of any health problem, medicine should be taken only after the doctor's advice and examination.

Pregnant women are advised to stay away from tea, junk food, chocolate, cigarettes and coffee.

- Alcohol, smoking and caffeinated drinks and foods affect the development of the fetus and increase the risk of miscarriage.

- During pregnancy, it is recommended to consume zero amount of alcohol and 200 mg of caffeine per day.

- Pregnant women should not consume raw fruit. It contains chemicals that harm the fetus.

- Don't eat stale food. Because there are bacteria like salmonella, listeria and e-coli, due to which women can get food poisoning.

- Daily light exercise is necessary. 

Is yogurt the best drink?

 Is yogurt the best drink?

How is curd made? Who learned to make such a best drink? These are interesting questions. Dahi is mentioned in mythological texts. It is mentioned that Lord Krishna stole curd and ate it as a child.

It is mentioned in a BBC report that the trend of curd started from the European country Bulgaria. According to the report, nomadic people learned to make curd four thousand years ago.

At that time they used to raise milk animals. There was no method of storing milk. So the remaining milk was kept at a certain temperature. If kept like this, the milk would turn into curd after some time. According to a BBC report, the seasonal temperature in Bulgaria was very favorable for curdling.

Yogurt making took place at different times in Central Asia and the Middle East. A special strain of bacteria is found in Bulgaria for curdling. Bulgarian scientist Stamen Grigorov was teaching at Geneva University in Switzerland at that time. He researched and studied how yogurt freezes. When milk is kept at a certain temperature for a certain period of time, then bacteria will grow in it. Due to the said bacteria, milk is converted into curd.

What is found in curd?

According to nutritionist Leel Bahadur Nepali, yogurt contains high quality fat, protein, calcium, potassium, water, iron carbohydrates, phosphorus, selenium and various vitamins (vitamins A, B, C, K, B12 and B2).

Similarly, yogurt contains probiotic protein, it keeps the body cool and provides coolness to the body. Also, it increases the ability of digestion and increases immunity.

How is curd made?

After boiling the milk until it thickens well, it should be cooled and stored as needed. After leaving it overnight, curd is ready.

How does curd benefit digestion?

Probiotics in curd activate the good micro-organisms in the body and reduce or inactivate the harmful bacteria and facilitate the digestive process.

At what time is it best to eat?

Morning time: It is considered very good to eat curd in the morning. It strengthens the digestive system and helps to keep the body active and energetic throughout the day.

Afternoon time: Eating curd in lunch is also beneficial. It improves the digestive process and helps digest food. Eating curd in the afternoon in summer cools the body and provides relief from the heat of the sun.

Evening time: It is good to eat curd in the evening too but it is best to have it with a light meal. For example, you can mix it with fruits or eat fruits first and then yogurt. It should be made like a smoothie or juice.

Something to note

Yogurt should not be eaten on an empty stomach. It can cause acidity in the stomach. It should always be taken with or after food.

Sweet curd: If you eat curd mixed with sugar, you should eat it in limited quantities. Too much sweet yogurt can cause weight gain. Yogurt should not be eaten immediately after taking it out of the refrigerator. It should be kept at room temperature for some time.

Why not eat at night?

Ayurvedic doctor Dr. According to Prakash Gyawali, eating curd in the evening increases phlegm in the body. It causes the risk of colds, sore throats, and colds. Therefore, according to the principles of Ayurveda, it is said not to eat curd at night because the body is more likely to get cold.

Is curd fresh or stale?

Even if it is kept for a long time, it does not rot, melt or become stale like other foods. Gyawali says. "But Ekrate Dahi is considered fresh," he says, "as the night progresses, its quality also decreases." But it cannot be called stale.

Use of curd

Traditionally, curd is used as a dessert ie dessert and sagun. Curd helps in enhancing beauty. Therefore, in addition to eating curd, it is applied like a pack on the skin of the mouth, hands and feet. It also makes the sun-burnt skin fair and soft. Lactic acid in curd is naturally anti-fungal. Therefore, this tea is also used to remove hair and it also works as a natural conditioner for hair.

What to eat yogurt with?

Dahi is eaten mixed with chiura, roti, puri and rice. There is a Nepali tradition of serving curd in the form of sagun when going somewhere far away from home. Nutritionist Leel Bahadur Nepali says that it is better to eat curd after eating other foods. "But because curd contains fat, it is appropriate for people with body fat problems not to mix it with other fatty foods as much as possible," he says.

Why is the taste different?

Yogurt is made from milk, but its taste is slightly different, because when the milk is frozen, bacteria are produced in it. Nutritionist Nepali says, 'When curd is made from milk, its shape, color and texture all change. That's why the taste is different.

Similarly, yogurt available in the market is of two types, pure and adulterated. The taste of these two types of yogurt is also different. Pure curd is made from whole milk while others may be mixed with sugar, powder, processed milk. Also, yogurt made from packet or powdered milk is not tasty.

Benefits of eating curd

Yogurt contains probiotics ie good bacteria. It helps to keep the stomach clean by strengthening the digestive system and eating a bowl of curd every day makes the digestive process healthy.

Increases immunity

Probiotics found in curd help to strengthen immunity. This can cause the body to absorb protein. Moreover, curd prevents stomach infections It also keeps it away.

Strengthens bones

Yogurt is the best source of vitamin C and D. It helps to keep bones and teeth strong. Eating curd daily can prevent the disease called osteoporosis.

Weight control

Since curd contains low fat and high protein, its daily consumption helps to avoid obesity.

Keeps skin healthy

Curd helps in keeping the skin shiny and soft in summer. As it contains vitamin E, zinc and phosphorus, it is good for skin color.

Yoghurt eating day

Every year Asar 15 is also celebrated as the day of eating curd. Dahi Chiura is used as a snack in June, which is considered as the month of planting mano. Dahi Chiura is considered the best snack as it is quick sweet, tasty and healthy and does not go stale and does not have to be complicated to cook.

Who should not eat curd?

A person who is allergic to milk or cannot digest lactose and has a cold should not consume any dairy products and even curd. Rheumatoid patients should also not eat it. Because it cools the body.

What not to eat with curd?

Eating cucumber with curd can have side-effects on the body. Similarly, eating curd with greasy food can cause fat in the body, while bananas, fish, and sour fruits mixed with curd can cause harm instead of benefits.

In an article published by writer Narayan Oli, there is a mention about some types of curd popular in Nepal.

1. Ekrate: Yogurt that has been left overnight in the fridge or frozen the previous day is called Ekrate yogurt.

2. Chokra: A lump of curd that does not set well and does not curdle when beaten is called chokra.

3. Juju Dhau: Curd made by adding saffron, sugar etc. to milk after heating for a long time is called Juju Dhau.

4. Lahe Dahi: Well-cured thick curd is called Lahe Dahi.

How is Juju Dhow popular in Kathmandu Valley made?

Juju Dha is made in traditional style. To prepare juju dhow, first of all, chaff is laid in the curd making area as required. The milk brought from the dairy should be boiled in a karahi so that it becomes thick. When boiling milk, at least 40 liters of milk is boiled to 30 liters.

After it boils, it is placed in a clay bowl on the chaff. Milk is kept in the bowl in three stages. In the first stage, only half of the milk is kept. After that, the milk is poured into a bowl from above.

Then at the end, milk is kept to fill it completely. After boiling the milk, the curd is covered with another bowl. It is covered with a thick silk or warm cloth from above. Juju Dha is ready after about four to five hours. But curd that is stored in plastic containers or in the refrigerator is kept for sale after boiling the milk. After that, the milk is filled all at once and placed in a plastic container.

Curd Museum

Curds require bacteria, which were named Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Which was done by a scientist named Stamen Grigorov from Bulgaria. Therefore, in Bulgaria, a curd museum has been built in his name, which is the only curd museum in the world. Which was named Lactobacillus bulgaricus. A type of bacteria is necessary for curdling.

Yogurt is the secret to longevity

Based on Grigorob's research, Eli Mechnikoff, a Russian Nobel Prize-winning biologist, discovered that the daily consumption of yogurt is responsible for the longevity of Bulgarian farmers. Most of the farmers lived there for more than 100 years. After it was known to prolong life, the tradition of eating curd was developed in France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and the UK.

Bacterial vaccine export

Even today, the Bulgarian government company LB Bulgaricom gives licenses for the trade and business of Bulgarian yogurt in its partner countries Japan and South Korea. Therefore, every year bacterial vaccines are exported from Bulgaria to Korea and Japan.

Where did the trend of curd start, why the taste is different?

Yogurt is rich in protein and calcium as well as probiotics. Probiotics help produce good bacteria in the body. It also works to convert the food in the stomach into probiotics. Which deactivates the bad bacteria in the body.

Nutritionist Sanjay Maharjan says that curd plays an important role in keeping the digestive system correct and healthy. There are both good and bad bacteria in the body. If the bad bacteria are active, the immune system becomes weak and you fall victim to various diseases,' he says, 'but regular consumption of yogurt helps to increase the number of good bacteria and increase the immune system.'

Carbohydrates, proteins and fats, all the three essential elements of the body are found in curd. Yogurt is also a good source of calcium, vitamins and minerals. Nutritionist Maharjan says that vitamin B6, B12, riboflavin, potassium and magnesium are found in curd.

"In this way, all Hisanb useful curd can be eaten three times a day in the morning, afternoon, evening after eating or with food," he says.

He advises people who are allergic to milk and yogurt, people with gastritis, people who cannot eat protein, people who cannot eat fat, to eat only according to the doctor's advice. In Ayurvedic, it is said that if you don't eat curd in the evening, you will feel cold. But there is no harm in eating in moderation," says Maharjan.

Why is the taste different?

Although curd is made from milk, its taste is slightly different, because when milk is frozen, bacteria are produced in it. Nutritionist Maharjan says, 'When curd is made from milk, its shape, color and texture all change. That's why the taste is different. Similarly, yogurt available in the market is of two types, pure and adulterated. The taste of these two types of yogurt is also different. Pure curd is made from whole milk while others may be mixed with sugar, powder, processed milk.

How healthy is yogurt available in the market?

Mohan Krishna Maharjan, information officer of the Food Technology and Quality Control Department, says that most of the yogurt available in the market is edible. "Because most of the yogurt is being consumed, monitoring is being done every few months, so no inedible yogurt has been found in the monitoring," he says.

What to eat yogurt with?

Dahi is eaten mixed with chiura, roti, puri and rice. There is a tradition of serving curd in the form of sagun when going somewhere far away from home. Nutritionist Leel Bahadur Nepali says that it is better to eat curd after eating other foods. "But because curd contains fat, it is appropriate for people with body fat problems not to mix it with other fatty foods as much as possible," he says.

How did curd start?

In some European countries, it is customary to give yogurt as a gift. In Europe's Bulgaria, any meal is considered incomplete without curd. It is believed that the trend of curd started from Bulgaria. It is said that four thousand years ago, nomadic people discovered a way to freeze curd. They used to migrate from one place to another with their entire families. At the same time, it is believed that they developed a method of curdling and that it spread all over the world. At that time, there was no method of storing milk, so they started making curd by storing milk.

Discovery of curd bacteria

A type of bacteria is necessary for curdling. A scientist named Stamen Grigorov from Bulgaria said that bacteria are needed for curdling. Now a Dahi Museum has been built in his name in Bulgaria, which is the only Dahi Museum in the world. Grigorov studied at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. During that time, he took a curd made in his village and researched it. Bacteria were found to be the main cause of curd formation. Which was named Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

The secret to longevity

Based on Grigorob's research, Russian Nobel Prize-winning biologist Eli Mechnikoff discovered the secret of long life of Bulgarian farmers. He discovered through research that Bulgarian farmers lived longer because they ate more yogurt. Most of the people who lived in the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria lived more than a hundred years.

After it was known that people who eat yogurt can live longer, the demand for Bulgarian yogurt increased rapidly in France, Germany, Switzerland, Spain and even in the UK. Later, every meal developed as a must-have dish without curd.

Traditional curd making

Until 1949, yogurt was made at home in the traditional way in Bulgaria. But when Bulgarian yogurt started to be in international demand, the government nationalized the dairy industry.

Because the Bulgarian government planned that this would be the right policy to increase relations and increase recognition in other allied countries of the Soviet Union at that time. They went to different places in Bulgaria and started collecting samples of home-made curd. All of them were used to make a lot of curd by giving it a new experience. In this way, a different type of Bulgarian yogurt started to be available in the market. The government also started exporting this brand of curd.

The art of curd making

Even today, the Bulgarian government company LB Bulgaricom has given licenses to trade and deal with Bulgarian yogurt in its partner countries Japan and South Korea. So every year Bulgari From this, bacterial vaccine is exported to Korea and Japan.

There are many types of yogurt in Bulgaria. Even if two people of the same family make curd, its taste is different. Yogurt making is an art form for the people there and this skill is being passed down from one generation to the next.

Wednesday, June 12, 2024

Why do people get old?

 Why do people get old?

Aging is a natural life process. But people hardly like to grow old. As people grow older, changes begin to occur in every activity. The eyes begin to weaken, the joints begin to weaken and the skin begins to thin.

A person has to go through various conditions to grow old. Man reaches old age through childhood, youth, adulthood.

There are various reasons why people get old, one of the main reasons is changes in DNA. DNA is a type of genetic code that is transmitted between cells. With increasing age, the transmission of these genetic codes begins to be disturbed and gradually begins to accumulate in the cells. This process is called genetic instability and when the DNA affects the stem cells, aging begins to appear, said geneticist Dr. Neelam Thakur says.

Other causes of aging

Chromosomal aberrations

At the end of each DNA strand is a cap-like structure that protects the chromosomes. These are called telomeres. As we age, this cap-like structure begins to fall away and the protection of the chromosomes begins to loosen, Dr. Thakur says.

When there is a disturbance in the structure of telomeres, the risk of many diseases increases. This increases the risk of lung problems and anemia. Both of these are serious problems related to immunity, she says.

Changes in funding

There is a special process in our body called DNA expression. In which thousands of genes in the same cell decide what to do. But time and lifestyle can change these instructions. In this situation, the cells also start to behave differently from their normal behavior and due to which the symptoms of old age begin to appear. Thakur says.

Decreased ability to renew cells

The body has the ability to renew itself to prevent the accumulation of damaged components in our cells. But this ability gradually decreases with age. Thakur says.

In this case, the cells begin to accumulate useless or toxic proteins, which can sometimes lead to Alzheimer's disease. Sometimes due to this, the risk of Parkinson's and cataracts also increases,” she says.

Mitochondria stop working

Mitochondria provide energy to the body. But with time they start losing their ability. Thakur says that their weakness also has a negative effect on DNA and leads to old age.

These are the main principles of aging. But apart from that, there are various reasons why people reach old age, which are still being studied, Dr. Thakur says.

In a study published in the science journal Nature, it has been claimed that scientists were able to remove wrinkles in mice by restoring mitochondria.

Signs of aging

Slow movement, weak brain capacity, wrinkled skin etc. are the symptoms of old age. But due to wrong diet and lifestyle, some people are showing signs of old age before reaching their age.

Why do people get old before their age?

Dr. Vikas Poudel, Dermatology and Venereologist

Senescence is a natural process as you grow older. But some people look old before their age. Premature aging is considered to be due to human genetics, diet and environment.

Heredity: Heredity plays an important role in various processes related to our age. Some people are prone to premature aging due to genetics.

Bad diet: Due to the lack of a balanced diet, if the right nutritional elements cannot be taken, the cells of the body begin to decay prematurely, which accelerates the aging process.

Processed food: eating a lot of processed food and fast food has a lot of negative effects on the body. As it contains more trans fat, sugar and unhealthy oil, it damages the cells of the body.

Excessive intake of salt: Excessive consumption of salt can cause water retention in the body, which leads to high blood pressure and other health problems. There is rapid decay in the cells, which causes premature aging.

Excess intake of sugar: Sugar weakens proteins like collagen and elastin, which creates problems in skin reconstruction.

Deficiency of nutrients: Due to lack of proper amount of vitamins and minerals (such as zinc, selenium), the cells of the body become weak.

Lack of protein: Protein helps in rebuilding body cells. If there is a lack of protein in the daily diet, then aging comes faster.

Stress and mental health: Stress, anxiety and depression can make people look older than they are. Staying under stress for a long time is harmful to health, which increases physical and mental problems.

Smoking and other drugs: Smoking has a number of negative effects on the body, including lung problems and rapid cell degeneration. It can make people look old before they reach their age.

Lack of sleep: If you don't get enough sleep, the body's rebuilding process is interrupted, which increases stress and weakens the body. Adequate sleep refreshes the body and slows down the aging process.

Bad lifestyle: Unhealthy lifestyle also causes premature aging. Poor diet, lack of physical activity and unhealthy habits weaken the body and accelerates the aging process.

In this way, premature aging is the result of various reasons. To reduce it, it is very important to eat right, have a healthy lifestyle, get enough sleep and be stress-free.

Some interesting facts about aging

Height decreases with age. The space between the bones of the spine is a gap, which is called the vertebrae, with increasing age, the gap between the bones decreases and the distance between the bones decreases. As a result, the height seems to be reduced by an inch or two.

According to the United Nations, Japan is the country with the largest elderly population in the world. Japan is number one in the list of countries with the highest proportion of population aged 65 and above in the total population of the country.

How does the kidney work?

 How does the kidney work?

According to the famous medical journal "The Lancet", by the year 2019, around 700 million people worldwide are suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is estimated that more than 14 lakhs have lost their lives.

According to a national study based on Global Burden of Disease data (coordinated by Achyutaraj Pandey), 6-7 percent of the total population in Nepal are suffering from chronic kidney disease, while the death rate is two to three per million.

The kidney is an organ that filters out the excess water and impurities in the human body and sends them out of the body through urine. Each bean-shaped kidney is four to five inches long. In which there is a very small filter called nephron. Senior kidney disease expert Prof. This filter will send blood disorders and excess water out of the body. Dr. Divya Singh Shah says.

The kidney's job is to balance fluid levels in the body, filter waste and toxins from the blood, secrete hormones that control blood pressure, activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones, and produce hormones (which direct the production of red blood cells).

Consultant Urologist Dr. Anil Pukar Sah says, 'Kidney plays an important role in maintaining the balance of minerals (sodium, phosphorus, potassium) in the blood.'

Kidneys filter about 200 liters of blood in 24 hours. In addition to removing the disordered substances in the blood through this process, Dr. Dr. will balance the amount of water in the body by taking out excess water through urine. Shah says.

Structure of kidney

There are two kidneys in the body. Kidneys are located behind the abdomen on both sides of the spine.

In an adult, the kidney is about 10 cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick. Each kidney weighs about 150 to 170 grams.

What effect does drinking a little water have on the kidneys?

The function of the kidneys is to filter the toxins in the body and remove them with urine. As the process of removing more water from the body - diarrhea, vomiting and sweating, and drinking less water, the blood pressure in the body decreases.

"When the blood pressure drops, the heart cannot circulate blood to the kidneys in the required amount, which affects the work done by the kidneys. Because of this, kidney disease specialist Dr. Nishant Acharya says.

Drinking less water in such a situation increases the risk of accumulating toxins in the body. Which also affects kidney function. In addition, there is a risk of kidney stones, kidney infection and even kidney failure," he says. "Therefore, to keep the kidneys healthy, you should drink three to four liters of water every day."

How does drinking a lot of water affect the kidneys?

As it is said, "If you eat too much of a pill, it will be bitter", Dr. Dr. Acharya says.

If you have to drink three to four liters of water daily, drinking four and a half liters or five liters of water will not have much effect. But drinking a lot of water on a daily basis puts a burden on the kidneys and can cause problems in the kidneys, he says.

A person who already has kidney problems has a reduced ability of the kidneys to filter water. Therefore, such patients should drink less water. Such people should drink water according to the doctor's advice.

Many organs of our body are active 24 hours a day, including the kidneys. Dr. The kidneys are doing their work even while sleeping at night. Acharya says.

Kidney is a careful organ. It can do what the body needs and doesn't need in a natural way," he says. "If someone goes without drinking water for a day, fasts, the kidneys manage the water that the body needs from other parts of the body."

Other causes of kidney problems

Kidney problems can happen to anyone, but people with diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and those who regularly take pain relievers are at higher risk. Similarly, if someone in the family has a kidney problem, other family members are also likely to have it. Senior nephrologist Prof. Dr. Singh says.

Symptoms of kidney failure

Pvt. Dr. Singh says, 'When you wake up in the morning, swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the ankles, body swelling, sudden weight gain, anemia, laziness, feeling tired, shortness of breath even after walking a little are the symptoms of kidney failure.'

There are also problems like bone pain, frequent urination, not much foam coming out when passing urine, and the color of urine is like tea.

Some kidney problems may not show any symptoms. But sometimes stomach ache, burning urine, fever may occur. If such a problem repeats, it may be a kidney problem," said Dr. Singh says.

What is the treatment for kidney failure?

After kidney failure, you should first go to the hospital and undergo tests to find out which stage it is. In Nepal, most of the people with chronic kidney problems go to the doctor only as a last resort.

There are five stages of kidney failure. The fifth stage is the last stage. Patients up to the fourth stage are cured by taking medicine. If it is in the first stage, it will not go to the second, if it is in the second, it will not go to the third. But medicine should be taken regularly.

But if the patient has reached the last i.e. fifth stage, dialysis and kidney transplant are the only options.

Also read this

What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

10 Interesting Facts About Kidneys

- An adult's kidney weighs 142 grams. It is equal to a human fist.

- The largest kidney stone found so far is 1.1 kg.

- The right kidney is just below the liver and it is the largest human internal organ. The left kidney is smaller than the right one.

- There are 1.1 million cells in the kidney. These are called nephrons. If they are connected and made like a rope, it will be eight kilometers long.

- Kidney cleans the blood 400 times a day.

- If the blood pressure in the human body is low, the kidneys give a message to constrict the blood vessels.

- Kidney cleans 1.3 liters of blood every minute.

- The biggest cause of stones is not drinking enough water.

- 25 percent of the total blood in the body goes from the heart to the kidneys.

- During a kidney transplant, the new kidney is placed inside the pelvis. It is not necessary to remove the old kidney.

Monday, March 4, 2024

What makes people attractive?

 What makes people attractive?

There is a saying in English 'First impression is the last impression.'

This means that the impression you leave when you meet someone for the first time will be remembered for a long time.

How you presented yourself in the first meeting with someone, how you looked, your cover will be remembered by the second person. Besides, what can you say that touches the hearts of others? Is it attractive to others?

What is the common understanding that the beginning of a love relationship is how you looked at first sight?

However, a person can look attractive due to some other qualities. Are you acceptable? how do you speak How are you presented? How do you behave?

A survey was conducted on this serofero in America. A common question was asked in it, 'What other qualities are attractive to a person apart from his looks?'

The participants were of the opinion that material success like house, car is the lowest quality among the things that attract them. Rather, they said that qualities such as agreeing with their partner, speaking openly, and being intelligent are in a higher category than physical attractiveness.

How important is the cover?

Commenting on this survey, Greg Webster, a professor of psychology at the University of Florida, USA, says, 'In this kind of survey, people try to answer in such a way that others consider it good. Therefore, such a survey may not reveal the real truth.

So, in reality, people value the cover of others?

Psychologist Dr. Pooja Shivam Jaitley says, 'The initial attraction lies in the person's cover. However, there is a difference in the look of this person.

How do you look? That may be the first point that someone makes an impression on you. But one's beauty or cover cannot remain attractive for a long time.

It is determined by your personality, your needs and how you see the world. You may have liked it at first glance, but if there is no communication between you at that time, then the same thing may lead to differences. Listening to your partner and coming to an agreement is an important condition for any relationship to last.

You may have liked someone because of their cover or beauty. But if she doesn't care about you, will you still like her?

Measuring the personality of any person is not an easy task. For decades, psychometric tests have asked people many such questions in order to gain more information about their personality.

How to evaluate someone's personality?

How to evaluate the personality of a person in ordinary life?

Behavior expert and life coach Aastha Dewan says, 'A person's personality is made up of a few things. How easy is it to communicate with you? This is important.

Do you let the second person speak when you are having a conversation? What is your interest, what is your opinion, what is the value of life, what is your confidence? All these things are an important part of personality.

You may also have heard that 'opposites attract' when two people who are completely different from each other are attracted to each other. Because differences in personality also attract people.

Then a person is looking for such a friend, who is already familiar with him. Whose personality, lifestyle and social group match. This is the basic principle of attraction.

Aastha Dewan's comment on this is, 'Sometimes a person looks for his equal friend. Sometimes it looks different from itself. This is a human tendency.

Especially if there is similarity in your thoughts, qualities, preferences, you will connect with each other immediately.

In order to sustain any relationship, it is necessary to be compatible to be able to show your own values while staying together.

It is not that people always look for their equality. Sometimes he likes a personality very different from himself. If both fulfill each other's needs.

Dr. According to Aastha Dewan, attraction is more often with the opposite person than friendship. Friendship also happens quickly between two completely different people.

She says, "How many times a person looks for what he lacks in his partner. And together with each other, they make up for that deficiency.

It is very important for the relationship to agree on the attractiveness of the other person. Greg Webster, along with social psychologists Angela Bryan and Amanda Mahaffey, researched three personality traits.

These three qualities were being physically attracted to people. Second, to be economically influential. Third, to make mutual agreement.

In this study, it was found that these three qualities attract people to themselves?

Because each property fulfills basic needs like safety and food in one way or another. But dominance can be anything, good or bad.

Whether people are in a relationship or not, people want their partner to be socially, physically and financially dominant. But most people do not accept this. That dominance also becomes a problem in their relationship.

If a person also has the quality of establishing dominance as well as making mutual consent, it adds to the attraction.

In essence, Webster says, "The quality we have of getting along with everyone is the best of our personality traits."

How to resolve the conflict between the couple?

 How to resolve the conflict between the couple?

There is no couple in the world who want to fight with each other. But it is said that not everything is in our hands. It is exactly the same in the relationship between husband and wife. Sometimes, even if you don't want to, the situation is such that a fight takes place.

However, in every married relationship there are minor conflicts and the couple resolves them and moves on. But sometimes even small quarrels take a big form and the matter reaches divorce. If so, what should be done to prevent the fight from getting bigger? What kind of habits can escalate the dispute with the spouse?

Loud voice while speaking

When both of them say such things, problems start to arise. Which is not easy for both of them to bear. He is not paying attention when he gets angry with his partner about something. Because of this, most of them come in a rage and speak in a loud voice. They start yelling to prove their point. Sometimes foul language is also used in anger.

This not only spoils the relationship, but can even lead to divorce. In such a situation, the problem should be resolved in a peaceful manner as possible.

A relationship does not end if there is a fight. But it is not right to blame each other after a fight. If you have a habit of fighting over small things, it can bring coldness in your relationship. During this period, instead of counting each other's mistakes, it is better to calm things down by showing understanding.

Leaving things unfinished

Someone's habit is to start an argument about something and then suddenly become silent. But silence is not the solution. It turns out to be like adding ghee to a burning fire. If you do this, your partner may feel like you are running away. Such behavior does not only increase the problem. The relationship will not be the same as before.

Treat each other as enemies

Unnecessary fights between husband and wife weaken their relationship. But after a fight, when they consider each other as enemies, a bigger problem arises. In the process, he forgets that he is under the same roof. If even one of them gets hurt, it will have a big impact on their married life. Therefore, when they are against each other, no problem is solved, it becomes more complicated. By doing this, the relationship can become dark and everything can get out of hand.

How to solve?

How to stop a fight once it starts? It can be difficult to know. Conflict may seem impossible to stop. Disputes can range from household chores or minor disagreements, doubts or financial transactions to major disputes. It is important to identify what kind of disagreement there is. Because it will help determine the best way to stop the argument.

One way to prevent conflict in a relationship is to take a break for both of you after the conflict is heated up. This gives each person time to reflect on the situation before continuing the conversation.

There are also some effective phrases that can be said when there is a dispute. Which calms the heated atmosphere.

'Let me think about it'

After saying this, both of them remained calm for some time. In this case, the pattern indicates that the idea is taken care of. If you take time to think, the solution to the problem will surely come out.

"You may be right"

This sentence shows the willingness to make a positive compromise on the disputed matter. This hint is enough to soften the mood for most people. And, it forces them to think about taking a step back.

"I understand"

These are powerful words. Conflicts happen when feelings and situations are not understood. If you listen well and say you understand, it shows sympathy. Understanding does not mean agreeing with something wrong. Understanding does not necessarily mean solving the problem. But if you make a mistake by listening, it helps to remember calmly.

"forgive me"

Many people hesitate to apologize because they think that admitting their mistakes will make them feel small. But sometimes apologizing in a dispute shows sympathy. It can kill the feeling of anger in an instant.

How to make sex life easier for people with high blood pressure and heart disease?

 How to make sex life easier for people with high blood pressure and heart disease?

Sex is a natural need. However, many people with heart problems may have a question - doesn't sexual activity put the heart at greater risk?

It is natural to have this dilemma. Because as much as other health problems are openly discussed, not so much is discussed about sex. Patients do not openly ask questions about this due to hesitation with doctors. So that it may be affecting the sex life directly and indirectly.

Does having heart problems affect your sex life?

Factors such as physical and mental condition, appropriate person and environment can make a difference in the outcome of sex. But sex is a basic need and it is not considered a taboo subject even in any disease.

It is considered safe to have sex even in people with heart problems. According to a journal published in the Johns Hopkins Medicine Organization, cohabitation is considered safe for people with heart and high blood pressure who have no problem climbing stairs, walking and running for some distance. If there are no symptoms, there is no objection to intercourse.

But during the extreme stimulation of sexual intercourse, heart rate increases and blood pressure also increases, so the heart may be under more pressure. For this reason, it is necessary to take some precautions in people with heart artery disease. But it is not necessary to stay away from sexual contact.

If the chest becomes heavy during normal swaying or climbing stairs, there may be some risk of heart attack during sexual intercourse. In such a case, after examining a cardiologist, proper treatment can be given and sexual activity can be done after consulting about precautionary measures.

Post-heart attack condition

It is not good to do too much physical activity for the first two weeks after a heart attack. After that, when the chest is not heavy while swinging and it is easy to do moderate physical activity, then it is possible to have sex. But the condition of being able to have sex and not being able to have sex may differ from person to person.

How to facilitate sex life after a heart attack?

- Husband and wife should talk about their interests and situation without keeping any distance between them.

- A healthy person between husband and wife should help each other by understanding each other's situation.

- Do not have sex immediately after eating.

- Fear should be removed from the mind. Sometimes you can't enjoy sex if you are afraid of having heart problems during intercourse.

- If the chest becomes heavy during intercourse, it may be necessary to stop the activity immediately and take medicine of the "nitrate" group. What the doctor may have said during the consultation.

- If you feel uncomfortable, you should consult a doctor.

Effects of sex on hypertension and cardiovascular disease

In people with high blood pressure and heart disease, the interest in sex is low and the male sex is not stimulated, it takes more time to get excited, and the excitement may not last for a long time. Women may also experience less interest and vaginal dryness and more pain.

the reason

Just as fatty substances accumulate in the blood vessels of the heart and brain and become narrowed, the blood vessels of the penis and vagina also become narrowed when the blood pressure increases. And, the blood flow decreases, which can decrease sexual interest in both.

Sometimes, heart and high blood pressure patients think they are weak without any reason and weaken their self-esteem, so they don't show priority in sex and cannot get full satisfaction. A condition that requires psychological counseling.

Similarly, some medicines related to heart and high blood pressure also affect sexual function. Medicines of the 'thiazide' and 'beta blocker' group used for high blood pressure can reduce sexual interest, lack of extreme pleasure, and decrease in sexual stimulation.

Studies have shown that about 10 percent of young and old people taking these drugs have this effect. Similarly, drugs such as digoxin and sparonolactone, which are used for heart disease, can also reduce sexual desire and cause pain and swelling in men's breasts.

Those with heart rhythm problems may also experience lack of sexual desire and sexual satisfaction. In addition, sexual desire can decrease in diseases such as high blood pressure, various hormone-related conditions, kidney disease, and long-standing uncontrolled diabetes.

What is the solution?

Medicines such as Viagra can be taken to increase sexual arousal. But before taking this medicine, you should consult a doctor.

Alternative medicines can be used on the advice of a doctor, depending on the age and condition of the person, instead of the drugs of the 'thiazide' and 'beta blocker' group used for high blood pressure and the drugs like 'digoxin' and 'sparonolactone' used for heart disease.

Taking Viagra can be fatal for people who are taking drugs from the 'nitrate' group. Apart from that, people with very high or low blood pressure, recent heart attack patients, kidney and liver diseases should not take Viagra.

Some tips for newlyweds about sex life

 Some tips for newlyweds about sex life

When you think of honeymoon, you only think of things related to empty sex, which is wrong. During this period, those who have a love marriage get a chance to understand each other more than those who have a love marriage. If you go somewhere during the honeymoon period, you will have a sweet memory for the rest of your life.

But it is better to know the sexual health problems that occur during the honeymoon and their solutions and safe sex methods. In matters of sex, the newlyweds should not be in a hurry to have sex, especially to show the aggressive behavior of men. It is better to have information about some aspects of sexual stimulation that can be done before sex rather than having sex once a day.

Listening to veg-non-veg jokes and using sexual organs can be done before intercourse. It is good for the couple to consume light alcohol as it helps in sexual performance. But from the point of view of safety, i.e. because you have to provide protection to your wife, you should not drink while drunk. Perfume can be used to remove sweat and body odor.

Since the membrane (hymen) in the vagina can be easily torn while learning to ride a bicycle, ride a bike, or ride a horse in the teenage years, there should not be any disagreement between the couple regarding the issue of virginity being broken depending on whether or not the membrane (hymen) is present in the vagina during the first sexual intercourse. Similarly, some men may have the problem of premature ejaculation, which is called premature ejaculation. This problem may have been due to mental reasons.

As mentioned above, if you do pre-sexual activities, you can increase your confidence and get rid of the problem of premature ejaculation. In addition, one should not dwell on sexual thoughts long before intercourse, stop and start sexual intercourse during intercourse, change posture, hold the bottom of the penis, use a condom, and exercise control of ejaculation by using muscles.

Frequent urinary tract infections are one of the other common problems that appear after starting to have sex. Which is also known as honeymoon cystitis (bladder infection) in medical language. Also, slight bleeding may occur due to injury to the hymen after the initial intercourse.

Among the pleasures or pleasures that a person can get, the extreme pleasure that can be obtained during sexual activity is probably the best category. In men, peak pleasure is achieved a little sooner, while in women, it is achieved only after a long interval. Men should be especially careful about this. Because even though there are still educated and modern girls in Nepal, they hesitate to express that they are not satisfied. If this matter is ignored and taken lightly, mental problems i.e. depression (sadness) may gradually appear in women.

Some couples, especially the female partner, may experience more pain than usual during intercourse. Which is called dyspareunia in medical language. Dyspareunia occurs when there is insufficient production of vaginal fluid, vaginal dryness, muscle contractions around the genitals due to fear or fear of sexual activity, chronic female genital infections, and blood clots around the uterus (endometriosis) after menstruation.

Males with erectile dysfunction can use drugs that increase sexual arousal. But in stressful or fearful situations and places, even if you try to have sex in a hurry, there may be a problem of not stimulating the sex, you should be careful about this. If a child is born within a month or a year of marriage, the happiness of married life may decrease due to additional responsibilities. Therefore, to enjoy marriage for some time, it is better for the couple to have children only after a few years of marriage.

Condom is the proper family planning tool for newly married couples to prevent pregnancy. Care must be taken when using the condom so that it does not break. Condoms can break in stressful or fearful situations and under pressure to demonstrate sexual ability. If the condom breaks, sexual intercourse should be stopped immediately, the penis should be removed, the genitals should be cleaned, and the penis should be changed.

There should be knowledge that pregnancy results from ovum expulsion, ejaculation during sexual intercourse, ovum fertilization, ovum implantation. Therefore, every woman should know the period of pregnancy according to her menstrual cycle. Condoms should be used during this period of pregnancy. During the rest of the time, you can have sexual contact openly without a condom.

Even if both these efforts fail, there is no need to panic, because pills can be used to get rid of emergency pregnancy. For this, four pills should be taken as the first dose within 72 hours of intercourse and the second dose after 12 hours.

Keeping this in mind, progesterone-only pills can be used, while condoms can be used for five days after unprotected intercourse. Even after that, in case of extensive stress, urine test and other safety measures can be adopted after consulting a gynecologist.

Sunday, January 21, 2024

What is mode of production. Compare and contrast economic features of feudal and capitalist mode of production.

 What is mode of production. Compare and contrast economic features of feudal and capitalist mode of production.

**Mode of Production:**

The mode of production refers to the way in which a society organizes and carries out economic activities, including how goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed. It involves the relationships between the means of production (such as land, labor, and capital) and the social relations of production (such as the organization of labor and the distribution of resources). Marx identified different historical modes of production, each characterized by distinct economic structures and class relations.

**Feudal Mode of Production:**

1. **Economic Structure:**

   - Land is the primary means of production in feudalism. The feudal lord owns the land and grants portions to vassals (nobles) in exchange for loyalty and services.

   - Agricultural production is central, and the majority of the population works as peasants on the lord's land.

2. **Class Relations:**

   - Feudal society is characterized by a hierarchical structure. The king or monarch is at the top, followed by nobles and vassals, with peasants forming the majority.

   - Serfs, tied to the land, provide labor in exchange for protection from the lord.

3. **Surplus Extraction:**

   - Surplus extraction occurs primarily through direct control of land. Lords extract surplus through a portion of the agricultural produce produced by peasants.

4. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - The feudal system is static, with limited social mobility. Social status and economic roles are largely determined by birth.

**Capitalist Mode of Production:**

1. **Economic Structure:**

   - Capitalism is characterized by private ownership of the means of production, such as land and factories.

   - Wage labor becomes a central feature, with workers selling their labor power to capitalists (owners) in exchange for wages.

2. **Class Relations:**

   - Capitalist society is marked by a class division between the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) and the proletariat (working class).

   - The bourgeoisie owns the means of production, while the proletariat sells their labor to survive.

3. **Surplus Extraction:**

   - Surplus extraction occurs through the production process. Capitalists accumulate surplus value by paying workers less than the value produced by their labor.

4. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - Capitalism is characterized by dynamic economic growth, technological advancements, and constant innovation.

   - Social mobility is theoretically possible, as individuals can accumulate wealth and change their class position.


1. **Ownership of Means of Production:**

   - Feudalism: Means of production, especially land, are owned by the feudal lords.

   - Capitalism: Means of production, including land and factories, are privately owned by individuals or corporations.

2. **Labor Relations:**

   - Feudalism: Serfs provide labor in exchange for protection, and there is limited mobility.

   - Capitalism: Workers sell their labor power for wages, and social mobility is theoretically possible.

3. **Role of Surplus Extraction:**

   - Feudalism: Surplus extraction is mainly through control of land and agricultural produce.

   - Capitalism: Surplus extraction occurs within the production process through wage labor.

4. **Social Mobility:**

   - Feudalism: Social mobility is restricted, and social roles are often determined by birth.

   - Capitalism: Social mobility is theoretically possible, allowing for the accumulation of wealth and change in class position.

5. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - Feudalism: Economic activity is relatively static, with limited technological progress.

   - Capitalism: Dynamic economic growth, technological innovation, and constant change characterize capitalist economies.

In summary, the feudal and capitalist modes of production represent distinct economic structures with different ownership relations, labor dynamics, and mechanisms of surplus extraction. The transition from feudalism to capitalism marked a significant shift in societal organization and economic relations.

Class and class struggle.

In the context of Marxist theory, a class is a social group characterized by its relationship to the means of production. The two primary classes in capitalist societies, as identified by Karl Marx, are the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

- **Bourgeoisie:** The capitalist class, or owners of the means of production (factories, land, resources). They derive profit from the labor of the proletariat.

- **Proletariat:** The working class, those who sell their labor power to the bourgeoisie. They do not own the means of production and are dependent on wages for their livelihood.

**Class Struggle:**
Class struggle refers to the ongoing conflict and tension between social classes, particularly between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Marx argued that this struggle is intrinsic to capitalist societies and is rooted in the fundamental economic relations of production.

- **Nature of Class Struggle:**
  - **Economic Exploitation:** The primary source of class struggle is the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. The capitalist system relies on extracting surplus value from the labor of workers.

  - **Conflicts of Interest:** The interests of the bourgeoisie and proletariat are inherently conflicting. While the bourgeoisie seeks to maximize profits, the proletariat aims to improve working conditions, wages, and gain control over their labor.

- **Forms of Class Struggle:**
  - **Economic Strikes:** Workers may engage in strikes to demand better wages, improved working conditions, or protest against unfair labor practices.

  - **Political Movements:** Class struggle can manifest in political movements advocating for workers' rights, social equality, and sometimes revolutionary change.

  - **Unionization:** Formation of labor unions is a way for the proletariat to collectively negotiate with the bourgeoisie for better terms of employment.

- **Historical Materialism:**
  - Marx's historical materialism asserts that the dynamics of class struggle drive historical change. Transitions from one mode of production to another (e.g., feudalism to capitalism) are propelled by class conflicts.

- **Role of Class Consciousness:**
  - Class consciousness refers to the awareness among the proletariat of their common interests and collective identity. Marx argued that the development of class consciousness is crucial for effective class struggle.

**Critiques and Developments:**
- Some critics argue that the modern working class may not align precisely with Marx's industrial proletariat, leading to challenges in applying traditional Marxist class analysis.
- Contemporary Marxist scholars explore intersections of class with other social categories, such as race and gender, acknowledging the complexities of identity and inequality.

In summary, class and class struggle are foundational concepts in Marxist theory, providing a lens to understand the dynamics of power, exploitation, and societal change within capitalist systems.

Historical marerialism.

**Historical Materialism:**

Historical materialism is a key concept in Marxist theory developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It is a methodological approach to understanding societal development and change, emphasizing the role of material conditions in shaping historical processes. The central tenets of historical materialism include:

1. **Primacy of Material Conditions:**
   - Historical materialism posits that the material or economic structure of a society—specifically, the mode of production—forms the foundation upon which all other social, political, and cultural structures are built.

2. **Modes of Production:**
   - Societies are characterized by distinct modes of production, each with its specific relations of production and means of production. Marx identified historical epochs, such as feudalism, capitalism, and socialism, as different modes of production.

3. **Dialectical Change:**
   - Historical materialism employs a dialectical approach, drawing inspiration from Hegelian dialectics. It sees historical development as a process involving contradictions, conflicts, and transformations. Changes in material conditions lead to social conflicts and, eventually, new social structures.

4. **Class Struggle:**
   - Class struggle is a central dynamic in historical materialism. Changes in the mode of production often arise from conflicts between social classes. For example, the transition from feudalism to capitalism is characterized by the struggle between feudal lords and emerging capitalist classes.

5. **Base and Superstructure:**
   - The economic base, encompassing the relations and means of production, influences the superstructure, which includes cultural, legal, political, and ideological institutions. Changes in the base drive changes in the superstructure.

6. **Revolutionary Change:**
   - Historical materialism suggests that significant societal transformations often require revolutionary change, particularly changes in the mode of production. For Marx, the transition from capitalism to socialism would involve a proletarian revolution.

7. **Human Agency and Consciousness:**
   - While material conditions shape societal structures, historical materialism recognizes the role of human agency. People act within the constraints of their material conditions but can also influence and transform those conditions. Class consciousness, or awareness of one's social class and interests, is crucial for social change.

**Application to History:**

1. **Feudalism to Capitalism:**
   - Marx applied historical materialism to explain the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Changes in agricultural technology, property relations, and the rise of merchant capitalism played pivotal roles in this historical process.

2. **Capitalism to Socialism:**
   - Marx envisioned the proletarian revolution as the next stage in historical development, leading to the establishment of socialism. The transition involves the collective ownership of the means of production and the abolition of class distinctions.

3. **Global Application:**
   - Historical materialism has been used to analyze the development of various societies worldwide, accounting for differences in historical trajectories based on economic structures.

**Critiques and Developments:**

1. **Non-economic Factors:**
   - Critics argue that historical materialism may oversimplify complex historical processes by reducing them solely to economic factors, neglecting the influence of culture, ideas, and non-material forces.

2. **Intersectionality:**
   - Contemporary scholars have expanded historical materialism to consider intersections with race, gender, and other social categories, recognizing that class is just one dimension of social hierarchy.

3. **Adaptability:**
   - Some argue that historical materialism is adaptable and can be applied to understand various forms of societal development beyond the classic capitalist framework.

Historical materialism remains a foundational concept in Marxist thought, providing a framework for analyzing the historical development of societies and the interconnectedness of economic, social, and political structures.

Marxist notion of consciousness.

The Marxist notion of consciousness is a critical aspect of Karl Marx's philosophical and sociological framework. In Marxist theory, consciousness refers to the awareness, beliefs, and ideas that individuals hold about themselves, society, and their position within the social structure. Key components of the Marxist notion of consciousness include:

1. **Base and Superstructure:**
   - Marx proposed the concept of the base and superstructure to explain the relationship between the economic structure of society (base) and the cultural, political, and ideological elements (superstructure). Consciousness is seen as part of the superstructure and is influenced by the underlying economic conditions.

2. **False Consciousness:**
   - Marx introduced the concept of false consciousness to describe a situation where individuals hold beliefs and ideas that are contrary to their own class interests. This occurs when the dominant ideas in society, often shaped by the ruling class, mislead individuals into accepting and supporting the existing social order.

3. **Class Consciousness:**
   - Class consciousness is a crucial concept in Marxist theory. It refers to the awareness that individuals have of their membership in a particular social class and their understanding of the shared interests and goals of that class. For the proletariat, developing class consciousness is seen as a precursor to revolutionary action.

4. **Ideological State Apparatuses:**
   - Louis Althusser, influenced by Marxist thought, introduced the concept of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs). These are institutions like schools, media, and religious organizations that disseminate ideological messages reinforcing the existing social order. They play a role in shaping and maintaining the consciousness of individuals.

5. **Role in Social Change:**
   - Marx believed that changes in the economic base of society would eventually lead to changes in consciousness. As the material conditions of production change, individuals' awareness and understanding of their place in society are expected to evolve, potentially leading to shifts in political and social structures.

6. **Revolutionary Consciousness:**
   - Marx envisioned a process where the proletariat, through developing class consciousness, would achieve revolutionary consciousness. This involves an understanding of the need to overthrow the existing capitalist system and replace it with a socialist or communist society.

7. **Materialism and Consciousness:**
   - Central to Marxist philosophy is historical materialism, emphasizing the material conditions of society as the driving force behind historical development. Consciousness, according to Marx, is rooted in these material conditions, and changes in the mode of production can influence ideological shifts.

8. **Critique of Religion:**
   - Marx famously described religion as the "opium of the people," suggesting that religious beliefs often serve to mask the harsh realities of class-based exploitation. He argued that changes in economic conditions would lead to a transformation in religious and ideological consciousness.

In summary, the Marxist notion of consciousness is intricately linked to the social and economic structures of a given society. It encompasses ideas of false consciousness, class consciousness, and the potential for revolutionary transformation based on shifts in material conditions and individuals' awareness of their social roles.