Friday, December 22, 2023

The Sociology of Markets. Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter.

 The Sociology of Markets.
Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter.

The Sociology of Markets, as explored by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter, delves into the intricate web of social relationships and structures that underlie market dynamics. This theoretical framework offers a profound understanding of how markets operate not merely as economic entities but as social institutions shaped by human interactions, cultural norms, and institutional arrangements.

One key aspect emphasized by Fligstein and Dauter is the concept of "socially embedded markets." They argue that markets are not detached from society but are deeply embedded within social structures. In their seminal work, the sociologists highlight how relationships, trust, and social networks play a pivotal role in shaping market outcomes. This perspective challenges traditional economic theories that often treat markets as purely rational and efficient entities divorced from social context.

Furthermore, Fligstein and Dauter introduce the notion of "strategic action fields" to explain the ongoing struggles and negotiations within markets. According to this concept, various actors, including firms, regulatory bodies, and consumers, engage in strategic actions to advance their interests. The authors argue that understanding these action fields is crucial for understanding market dynamics, as it sheds light on the power relations, alliances, and conflicts that define market structures.

In their analysis, Fligstein and Dauter also highlight the role of institutions in shaping market behavior. Institutions, both formal and informal, provide a set of rules and norms that guide economic interactions. The sociologists argue that institutional arrangements influence not only individual behavior but also the overall functioning of markets. This perspective aligns with the broader field of economic sociology, which seeks to integrate sociological insights into the study of economic phenomena.

The authors pay particular attention to the concept of "market as a social structure." They argue that markets are not only arenas for economic exchange but also social structures that shape and are shaped by societal values, norms, and power dynamics. This approach challenges the traditional economic view that sees markets primarily as mechanisms for allocating resources efficiently. Instead, Fligstein and Dauter advocate for a more holistic understanding that considers the social and cultural dimensions of markets.

Another crucial element of their work is the examination of market dynamics in relation to globalization. The increasing interconnectedness of markets on a global scale has profound implications for social structures and relationships. Fligstein and Dauter explore how globalization influences the power dynamics within markets, shapes the role of nation-states, and contributes to the emergence of transnational markets.

In conclusion, the Sociology of Markets, as articulated by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter, offers a comprehensive and nuanced perspective on the interplay between markets and society. Their emphasis on socially embedded markets, strategic action fields, and the role of institutions provides a rich framework for understanding the complexities of contemporary market systems. By integrating sociological insights into the analysis of markets, Fligstein and Dauter contribute significantly to a more holistic and interdisciplinary understanding of economic phenomena.

Here are key points about "The Sociology of Markets" by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter in bullet form:

- **Socially Embedded Markets:**

   - Markets are not isolated from society but deeply connected to social structures.

   - Emphasizes the role of relationships, trust, and social networks in shaping market dynamics.

- **Strategic Action Fields:**

   - Describes ongoing struggles and negotiations among various market actors.

   - Focuses on how actors, including firms and regulatory bodies, engage in strategic actions to advance their interests.

- **Institutional Influence:**

   - Institutions, both formal and informal, play a crucial role in shaping market behavior.

   - Rules and norms provided by institutions guide economic interactions at both individual and market levels.

- **Market as a Social Structure:**

   - Views markets not only as economic arenas but also as social structures.

   - Acknowledges that markets shape and are shaped by societal values, norms, and power dynamics.

- **Globalization Impact:**

   - Examines how globalization influences market dynamics.

   - Considers the interconnectedness of global markets and its implications for power dynamics and the role of nation-states.

- **Holistic Understanding:**

   - Advocates for a more comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to studying markets.

   - Challenges traditional economic perspectives by integrating sociological insights.

- **Power Dynamics:**

   - Highlights the power relations, alliances, and conflicts within Mark etc.

   - Recognizes that understanding these dynamics is essential for understanding market structures.

- **Transnational Markets:**

   - Explores the emergence and impact of transnational markets in the context of globalization.

   - Considers how global interconnectedness influences the behavior of market actors.

- **Cultural Dimensions:**

   - Acknowledges the influence of culture on market behavior.

   - Argues that cultural factors are integral to understanding the complexities of market systems.

- **Economic Sociology Alignment:**

   - Aligns with the broader field of economic sociology.

   - Integrates sociological perspectives into the study of economic phenomena.

These points provide a concise overview of the key concepts and contributions of Fligstein and Dauter's work on the Sociology of Markets.

Here are some important points about "The Sociology of Markets" by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter:

- The sociology of markets is a field of study that examines the social, cultural, and economic factors that influence the behavior of individuals and groups within markets.

- Markets are not inherent, but rather are socially constructed, meaning they are shaped by the interactions of individuals and groups within a society.

- Cultural factors play a significant role in shaping market behavior, as they influence how individuals perceive value, make decisions, and interact with others within the market.

- Social structures, such as institutions, organizations, and networks, influence the operation of markets by providing the context within which market participants interact and transact.

- Power dynamics between market participants can impact market outcomes and the distribution of resources.

- The increasing interconnectedness of global markets has led to the emergence of new market dynamics, such as the growth of multinational corporations, the rise of emerging markets, and the intensification of competition.

- Technological advancements have transformed the way markets operate, from the advent of the internet and e-commerce to the development of new technologies that enable real-time trading and information sharing.

- The sociology of markets has been one of the most vibrant fields in sociology in the past 25 years.

- The major ideas in the sociology of markets include the social construction of markets, cultural factors, social structures, power dynamics, globalization, and technological advancements.

- The sociology of markets has made significant progress in exploring context as the 'origins, operations, and dynamics of markets as social structures'.

- The “micro-constructionist” perspective on market creation suggests that markets function when producers and consumers establish a stable social organization with roles and niches.

- For any market to function, supply must be brought into contact with demand in "social spaces where repeated exchanges occur".

- The sociology of markets is a multidisciplinary field that seeks to understand the complex interactions between human behavior, social structures, and market forces.

New variant of Korana also found in Noida, JN.1 variant has raised concern

 New variant of Korana also found in Noida, JN.1 variant has raised concern

Covid-19 JN.1 Variant Updates: According to the data released by the Ministry of Health, 594 new cases of Corona have been registered in the country in the last 24 hours.

Covid-19 JN.1 Variant Updates: The cases of corona virus in the country have started increasing again. According to the data released by the Union Health Ministry on Thursday, 594 new cases of Corona have been registered in the country in the last 24 hours. More new cases of corona are coming from states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu. After the increase in new cases of Corona in the country, the number of active cases has increased to 2669. The government is also on alert due to the rapidly increasing cases of Corona. Let us tell you that for the past few days, cases of the new variant of Corona, JN.1, are also coming to the fore in the country. This new variant is spreading rapidly in countries like China, America and Singapore.

A case of Corona found in Noida

A new case of Corona has also been found in Noida (Gautam Budh Nagar), which is adjacent to the capital Delhi, after many months. A 54-year-old man working in a multinational company in Gurugram has been found corona positive. The local health department is now taking the history of the patient. Instructions have been given to test the people who come in contact with the patient. The sample of the corona positive person has been sent to a lab in Delhi for genome sequencing. The local health department has come into alert mode due to the first case of corona in Noida after months.

Guidelines for screening patients with viral and influenza

The government is working in action mode after a new case of Corona was found in Noida. The order from the government is that the examination of patients with symptoms of viral infection, respiratory tract infection and influenza should be a priority. Patients who have symptoms of the new variant JN.1 should also be screened after their contacts have been taken.

JN.1 Variant Symptoms - JN.1 Variant Symptoms

These symptoms are seen in patients infected with JN.1 variant-

Symptoms of influenza illness

High fever and headache

Muscle pain

sore throat

Physical weakness

runny nose

sore throat

Gastrointestinal problems

Fatigue and muscle weakness

The JN.1 variant, which has been spreading in America and China since September this year, is being said to be more dangerous than the previously found variant. This variant is formed after a mutation in the BA.2.86 variant and Pirola's spike protein. Let us tell you that the spike protein is a part of the virus, which attacks human cells. In this new variant, the ability to dodge the immune system is more than the previously found variant.

These symptoms are seen when infected with the JN.1 variant, warned the former WHO scientist

JN.1 Variant Signs and Symptoms: The JN.1 variant is composed of the BA.2.86 variant and a mutation in Pirola's spike protein.

JN.1 Variant Signs And Symptoms: For the past 3 years, the corona virus epidemic has been a headache for the whole world. In the past few days, the new variant of Corona JN.1 is spreading rapidly all over the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called the new JN.1 variant of Corona a 'variant of interest'. Cases of JN.1 variant are also increasing in India. Earlier, the JN.1 variant was confirmed in China, Singapore and the US. The symptoms seen in patients infected with this new JN.1 variant of Corona are not recognized at the beginning. This is the reason why patients can be identified after some time after being infected. Experts believe that the infection capacity of this variant is much higher than the previously found variant and if its infection is not controlled, it can infect many people. Let us know in detail in this article the symptoms and prevention of the new JN.1 variant of Corona.

Symptoms and signs of JN.1 variants

The JN.1 variant, which has been spreading in America and China since September this year, is being said to be more dangerous than the previously found variant. This variant is formed after a mutation in the BA.2.86 variant and Pirola's spike protein. Let us tell you that the spike protein is a part of the virus, which attacks human cells. In this new variant, the ability to dodge the immune system is more than the previously found variant.

When infected with the JN.1 variant, the patient shows these symptoms-

High fever and headache

Symptoms of influenza illness

sore throat

Muscle pain

Physical weakness

runny nose

sore throat

Gastrointestinal problems

Fatigue and muscle weakness

Former scientist of WHO said this - Dr Soumya Swaminathan on The New Covid Variant

Soumya Swaminathan, the former chief scientist of the World Health Organization, said in a conversation with a TV channel that, "It would be a big mistake to think of Covid as a common cold. The risk of mental problems increases." He further said that India is now fully prepared to fight such an infection. In order to avoid infection, special attention should be paid to the immunity of children and the elderly, and masks should be worn in public places.

358 new cases have come in the last 24 hours - Latest Covid Cases in India

According to the data released by the Union Health Ministry, 358 new cases of Corona have been registered in India in the last 24 hours. 84 percent of these cases are from Kerala alone. 300 new cases of corona have been found in Kerala during the last 24 hours. Apart from this, 3 patients have died due to corona virus infection in the country in the last 24 hours, these three deaths are in Kerala. After the registration of new cases, the number of active patients of Kovid in the country has increased to 2,669.

Corona's new variant JN.1 has appeared, know how dangerous it is compared to other variants?

Recently a new variant of Corona JN.1 has come out. According to scientists, it can prove to be more contagious than other variants.

The case of Corona has not completely stopped yet, so new variants of Kovid are being seen. Recently, a new variant of Corona, JN.1, has come out, which has increased the concern of scientists. According to scientists, it is more contagious than other variants. Not only this, it can also be harmful to the immune system.

This variant is found in many countries

According to scientists, it has also been found in England, Iceland and France. This variant was first spotted in Luxembourg on 25 August 2023. However, the good thing is that not a single case of the JN.1 variant has been confirmed in India yet. According to scientists, it is different from JN.1, XBB.1.5 and HV.1 variants. This variant can also trick the immune system. So far 10 mutations have been observed in XBB.1.5 and HV.1. At the same time, 41 changes have been made in the JN.1 variant compared to the XBB.1.5.

Characteristics of the JN.1 variant

The symptoms of this variant may also be similar to the old variants of Kovid.

Exposure to this variant may cause body fatigue and breathing difficulties.

In this situation, along with muscle pain, headache can also occur.

In such a case, along with the problems related to the stomach, the problem of phlegm can also occur.

Exposure to this variant may cause problems with taste or smell.

How important it is to take the vaccine to avoid corona

According to health experts, it is very important to get vaccinated to avoid this variant of Corona. You can avoid damage to the immune system through the vaccine. Some time ago, the updated vaccines of Corona have also become available in India. After which the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advised people to get a new booster dose vaccine to avoid corona infection.

Monday, December 18, 2023

How safe is it to have sexual intercourse during menstruation?

 How safe is it to have sexual intercourse during menstruation?

If you do not plan to conceive, you should use safe methods while having sex. Because if the menstrual cycle is regular, there is a high chance of pregnancy if you have sex on the 10th to 22nd day of the period. Therefore, it is considered safe to have sex before and for a few days after menstruation, even without the use of any means.

However, is it okay to have sex during menstruation or not? This question should be asked in two ways. One is the hygiene of the genitals and the other is the condition of not being pregnant.

The couple is ambivalent about this. But if both partners want to have sex during menstruation, there is no problem. However, during menstruation, the possibility of sexually transmitted diseases is higher than at other times, so temporary means should be used.

What is the probability of pregnancy?

A woman who has regular periods does not get pregnant if she has sex at that time. But if there is irregular menstruation and a short menstrual cycle, there is a risk of pregnancy in women. For example, a woman who has regular periods may become pregnant if she has intercourse during that period thinking that it is menstruation when she bleeds after a long time. When having sex, one should be sure that the menstrual cycle is not regular.

Similarly, if a woman's menstrual cycle is short, i.e. 28 days, ovulation can occur even in seven days. As a result, even if you have sex on the fourth or fifth day of your period, you can still get pregnant. If menstruation happens in 30 days, the ovulation becomes delayed, so even if you maintain intercourse after 6-7 days of menstruation, the chances of pregnancy are less.

Even if regular contraceptive medication is continued during menstruation, there is no chance of getting pregnant. The pill does not stop working whether you are menstruating or not. It is safe to use a condom or birth control pills if you have sex while you are menstruating.

Is there a risk of infection?

Having sex during menstruation increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Because viruses live in blood and sexually transmitted diseases can spread through contact with blood. Using a condom during sexual intercourse can reduce the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

A woman's body undergoes many changes during menstruation. Various studies have shown that lubrication is not necessary if the relationship is established in that order. Also, by establishing a relationship during this period, the menstrual effect migraines and headaches caused by some women are reduced.

Something to note

Most women have a disease or infection and if intercourse hurts, it is better not to have intercourse as much as possible. If you have a stomach ache or are physically weak, not having sex can cause more problems. If the woman is ready for sex and the man is also ready to take precautions, then sex can be done. Before starting a relationship, you should start a relationship only if your partner also wants it. If there is bleeding, intercourse should be done only after cleaning. Wash your private parts thoroughly before and after intercourse. If a woman is wearing a tampon during her period, she should remove it.

Does green tea really control obesity and blood pressure?

The practice of drinking green tea as a health-enhancing drink is increasing, even in Nepali society. Consumers have been drinking it saying 'for health rather than taste'.

On the other hand, manufacturers and sellers have been claiming that green tea is a very beneficial drink. The use of green tea has increased not only in Nepal, but all over the world.

Some drink it as 'to reduce obesity', while others drink it as 'to control blood pressure and diabetes'. Some drink green tea as a 'anti-cancer' drink and some as a 'skin brightening' drink.

Is green tea really beneficial?

What is the ingredient in green tea, which reduces the risk of cancer from lowering blood pressure, obesity?

There have been different studies on this at the international level. According to a study published in the National Library of Medicine, green tea has properties ranging from obesity control to anti-cancer properties. A report by Time magazine mentions that green tea naturally reduces high blood pressure.

Anti-cancer agent

Green tea contains epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an antioxidant of the flavonoid family. It prevents damage caused by free radicals in our body. Free radicals are the ones that destroy body cells and increase the risk of cancer.

In a report published in The Medical Today, it is claimed that the rates of some cancers are lower in countries that consume green tea. Based on more than 100 studies reviewed in 2020, green tea has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of cancer.

Cancer specialist Dr. working in Patan Hospital. Arun Shahi also agrees with this. He says, 'Since it contains abundant anti-oxidants, it fights free radicals and reduces the risk of cancer.' He says that green tea works well to prevent cancer-causing elements from dominating.

Controls blood pressure

Working in Om Hospital Dr. Kamal Sharma Lamsal says, 'The polyphenols found in it reduce high blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Also, by breaking down the fatty substances accumulated in the blood vessels, it facilitates the functioning of the heart and brain.

A study conducted by the British Heart Foundation also found that drinking green tea every day makes the arteries of the heart open and soft. As a result, it reduces the risk of heart attack.

On the other hand, according to Forbes Health, there were 9 different studies on this topic in 2016. Analyzing the study, it was found that drinking three cups of green tea daily reduces the risk of stroke and heart attack.

Obesity control

In a report of Medical News Today, the fact that green tea reduces obesity has been presented. Accordingly, green tea makes the metabolism more effective. Metabolism is the process of converting any food we eat into energy. Green tea contains caffeine and catechins, which help in digesting food.

A review published in 2010 noted that green tea can help control weight. Certain compounds present in green tea break down body fat. What was found in an eight-week study is that if you drink green tea and exercise at the same time, you burn fat faster.

"Beneficial if you drink it properly": Dietitian Dr. Raju Adhikari

Green tea is a healthy drink. It has many benefits such as reducing obesity, controlling blood pressure, improving heart and brain function. There have been many studies around the world on how green tea works. And it has been used for centuries.

It is a rich source of antioxidants. Due to this property, green tea plays a role from benefiting the heart to reducing the risk of cancer. Apart from that, green tea contains micronutrients like potassium, magnesium, vitamin B-2.

Green tea also acts as an anti-aging agent and maintains the glow in the skin of the body. The amino acid L-theanine found in it produces hormones such as dopamine and serotonin, which keep the brain excited and happy.

There is no doubt that green tea is very beneficial. However, it is not a medicine that has an immediate effect. The effect of green tea is gradual in the body. It benefits those who drink regularly.

It also affects the physical condition of the person, lifestyle etc. If you eat right, exercise, green tea will benefit your body more. However, on the contrary, if your lifestyle is bad, green tea will not cure any disease.

There is a saying in Nepali, too much causes damage. The same should be said in the case of green tea. It is best to drink three to four glasses (of medium size) of green tea a day.

Likewise, green tea should not be drunk on an empty stomach. Pregnant women, those with low blood pressure should also not drink green tea. Those who are undergoing treatment for a disease or taking medication should consult a doctor before drinking green tea.

What is the correct way to drink gin tea?

How much, how and when to drink green tea determines how effective it is.

how much to drink

Drink three or four cups (medium cup) a day.

What time to drink?

Green tea should not be drunk on an empty stomach, with or after meals. It is best to drink green tea 30 to 45 minutes before and after meals.

How to prepare?

Green tea does not need to be brewed like other teas. Put green tea in a cup and pour hot water over it. Two or three Cover the minutes. Then you can drink green tea.

What kind of green tea to drink?

There are many green teas in the market. It is useful to take open green tea as much as possible. After soaking in water, tea leaves look green again. It is important to understand whether the tea is certified organic or not.

Is turmeric anti-cancer?

  Turmeric not only makes vegetables look attractive but it is also beneficial for health. Turmeric is rich in calories, vitamin A, calcium, phosphorus and iron. Various studies have been done on turmeric around the world.

Curcumin is a medicinal substance found in turmeric. It is considered useful and effective for cancer patients. Oncologist Prof. Dr. Vivek Acharya says, 'There is no fact or research that turmeric does not cause cancer, but the curcumin content found in it has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It kills cancer cells in the body and prevents others from growing.

But curcumin is extracted from powdered turmeric available in the market. It does not matter who eats turmeric or not. Therefore, if possible, curcumin content can be replenished by producing it at home and eating turmeric powder.

It is beneficial for health if you take half a teaspoon in the morning or evening or a small teaspoon at a time. Acharya says.

Ayurvedic doctor Dr. Puneshwar Keshari says that since turmeric contains antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-fungal, and immunomodulation properties in abundance, it protects the cells in the body from infection and increases immunity. It kills cancer cells and prevents them from growing.

Curcumin, the active ingredient found in turmeric, dissolves easily in fats and oils. But it is insoluble in water," Dr. Keshari says, 'Therefore, if turmeric is to be used, it can be mixed with milk like fatty foods. When eaten in this way, the substances found in turmeric are easily absorbed by the body. But if you mix turmeric with water and eat it, it is not as effective as milk.

Turmeric is used both externally and internally. For external use, applying turmeric paste on the skin helps to protect against skin allergies, wounds, sores, warts. Similarly, mixing some herbs with turmeric and applying it on the skin makes the skin soft, smooth and shiny.

When and how much to eat?

Turmeric can be consumed daily in the morning and evening. Because it dissolves in milk, it is very beneficial to put turmeric in milk after eating. It is also called Golden milk. During the corona epidemic, golden milk i.e. turmeric-infused milk was widely used.

According to doctors, you can eat up to 12 grams of turmeric in a day. Do not eat more than this. It can cause disadvantages instead of advantages. Two to four grams can be mixed with milk and eaten.

According to doctors, research has shown that diabetic patients get good benefits by mixing equal amounts of amla and turmeric powder in milk. Eating 6 grams in the morning and in the evening after eating helps to prevent type 2 diabetes.

Under what circumstances should you not eat turmeric?

Dr. Ayurvedic doctor, who can sometimes have negative effects with this beneficial turmeric. Keshari says. The use of turmeric is not suitable if you are taking allopathic medicines, i.e. blood thinners. It thins the blood and causes bleeding. Similarly, if you have undergone surgery for any disease, then it is better not to use turmeric. Turmeric should not be used as a medicine by people suffering from hemophilia, i.e. long-term bleeding due to injury.

Similarly, if you have other bleeding diseases, you should not consume turmeric. This can lead to complications instead of benefits. Turmeric helps in immunomodulation and increases immunity.

How can you distinguish the purity of turmeric?

Turmeric is considered health promoting for the body. How pure is the turmeric that we are using daily? It also depends on that. Because the turmeric available in the market now has various chemicals or powder mixed in it. Therefore, it is necessary to check whether the turmeric used in the kitchen is pure or not. Ayurvedic doctor Keshari says that the purity of turmeric can be checked at home.

How to check

Pour clean water in a glass, add the turmeric powder bought from the market and dissolve it and then leave it for a while.

Turmeric is mixed with some powder in a glass of water. Which means that turmeric has been adulterated. If there is no adulteration, it dissolves in water and floats on top. Hydrochloric acid is also used to measure purity. Mix turmeric powder in hydrochloric acid. Mix it well, enough foam will come out. Similarly, if the color of turmeric turns pink or purple, it may be adulterated.

Turmeric used in every dish is not necessarily pure. A chemical called Metanil Yellow is added to the turmeric that is bought from the market and used. While it can also cause a terrible disease like cancer.

There has been an experimental study to see if curcumin extract from turmeric is useful for cancer, Dr. Puneshwar Keshari says, 'Until now, no study has been done on cancer patients.'

This is beneficial

With the help of turmeric and its main component curcumin, childhood leukemia, i.e. blood cancer, can be prevented. It helps to detoxify the liver, which reduces the risk of cirrhosis and jaundice. It keeps all parts of the body healthy and free from toxins.

It reduces factors like digestion, gas and bloating to reduce weight, fat may Helps activate metabolism. It has anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties as well as antibacterial properties. Therefore, turmeric works as a cure for all types of diseases.

Turmeric strengthens the immune system thanks to its strong antioxidant activity, which fights free radical attacks on the system. Its strong anti-inflammatory properties are also effective against the development of rheumatoid arthritis. If taken as a supplement, turmeric pills help in reducing joint pain.

Regulates homocysteine levels and controls cholesterol levels. It also helps prevent heart attacks. Regulates insulin levels and thus has a limited effect on diabetes control.

In the latest research on turmeric on Imri Day Health News Portal, turmeric has a long history in Asia as a treatment for all kinds of health problems, including digestive problems. A recent study found that the bright-yellow spice and its active ingredient, curcumin, may be as good at fighting indigestion as the over-the-counter drug omeprazole (Prilosec).

According to a study published in BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, scientists randomly assigned 151 adults with indigestion to one of three diets. Participants took two 250 milligram (mg) capsules of curcumin. 20 mg tablets four times daily or both treatments combined. The researchers asked participants about the severity of indigestion symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal pain at the beginning of the study on days 28 and 56, and again later.

According to study results, participants reported a reduction in symptoms in all three treatment groups.

Is it safe to take curcumin supplements for indigestion?

Although the study did not identify any serious side effects with curcumin or omeprazole (stomach acid-reducing drugs), laboratory tests showed that curcumin could cause liver damage in some overweight people.

Furthermore, the quality and quantity of curcumin in supplements may vary. Yuying Luo, assistant professor of gastroenterology at the Icahn School of Medicine, says, "Turmeric itself has been linked to liver injury, and when mixed with other substances, such as black pepper, it increases blood levels of curcumin."

Participants in the study consumed a total of two grams of curcumin daily and experienced no side effects. It is not associated with liver problems at doses up to 6 grams daily,' says Dr Luo. But she suggests reading the label of any supplement carefully and consulting with your doctor.

Practice Of Social Change and Development in Asia

Practice Of Social Change and Development in Asia  

Remittances, Migration and Social Development 

A Conceptual Review of the Literature 

Hein de Haas

Hein De Haas has been a prominent scholar in the field of migration studies, and his work often delves into the interconnections between migration, remittances, and social development. Here is a conceptual review of the key themes in the literature:

1. **Remittances and Economic Impact:**

   - Scholars often explore how remittances, which are financial transfers sent by migrants to their home countries, impact the economic development of receiving communities. This includes assessing the role of remittances in poverty alleviation, household income, and local economic development.

2. **Social and Cultural Transformations:**

   - Migration and remittances can bring about social and cultural changes in both sending and receiving communities. Researchers may investigate the impact of migration on family structures, gender roles, and cultural practices.

3. **Developmental Consequences:**

   - The literature may discuss the broader developmental consequences of migration and remittances, considering factors such as education, healthcare, and overall human development indices in the context of remittance-receiving regions.

4. **Migration Policies and Social Development:**

   - De Haas might explore how migration policies, both in sending and receiving countries, influence the social development outcomes associated with migration and remittances. This could involve examining the role of policy frameworks in shaping the impact of migration on communities.

5. **Transnationalism and Social Networks:**

   - Hein De Haas may also focus on the transnational nature of migration and how social networks formed by migrants contribute to social development. This involves looking at how connections between migrants and their home communities shape economic and social outcomes.

6. **Critiques and Challenges:**

   - The literature may address critiques and challenges associated with the optimistic narratives around remittances and social development. This could include discussions on issues like dependency, inequality, and the potential negative consequences of relying heavily on remittances.



The exploration of "Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of The Literature" by Hein De Haas is a journey into the intricate dynamics of how migration, particularly through the flow of remittances, shapes social development. This topic holds particular relevance within the field of sociology as it examines not only the economic dimensions of migration but also its profound social and cultural consequences.

**Background on Hein De Haas:**

Hein De Haas, a luminary in the realm of migration studies, has significantly shaped our understanding of the interplay between migration and societal development. As a professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam, his research contributions encompass a diverse range of themes, from the economic impacts of remittances to the social and cultural transformations associated with migration.

**Objectives of the Conceptual Review:**

The overarching objective of this literature review is to glean insights into the multifaceted relationship between remittances, migration, and social development. By delving into De Haas's works, we aim to understand the nuanced connections and uncover the broader implications that extend beyond economic considerations.

**Remittances and Economic Impact:**

One of the central foci of De Haas's research involves examining how remittances, the financial lifelines sent by migrants to their home countries, contribute to the economic development of recipient communities. His work delves into the role of remittances in poverty alleviation, the augmentation of household income, and their influence in fostering local economic development.

**Social and Cultural Transformations:**

Migration is not a mere economic phenomenon; it entails profound social and cultural transformations. De Haas's insights shed light on how migration and the subsequent inflow of remittances influence family structures, redefine gender roles, and contribute to shifts in cultural practices within both sending and receiving communities.

**Developmental Consequences:**

Beyond the immediate economic impacts, migration and remittances have far-reaching consequences for societal development. Hein De Haas's conceptualization extends to factors such as education, healthcare, and overall human development indices within regions that receive remittances.

**Migration Policies and Social Development:**

Understanding the interplay between migration policies and social development outcomes is crucial. De Haas's research explores how policies in both sending and receiving countries shape the impact of migration, providing insights into the regulatory frameworks that influence the development trajectory of communities involved in migration processes.

**Transnationalism and Social Networks:**

Migration is inherently transnational, and De Haas's work delves into the complexities of social networks formed by migrants. These networks, extending across borders, play a pivotal role in shaping social and economic outcomes for both migrants and their home communities.

**Critiques and Challenges:**

In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding, it is essential to consider critiques and challenges associated with optimistic narratives surrounding remittances. De Haas's research likely engages with issues such as dependency, inequality, and the potential negative consequences that may arise from an overreliance on remittance inflows.


In conclusion, this conceptual review offers a nuanced exploration of remittances, migration, and social development through the lens of Hein De Haas's extensive contributions. The synthesis of economic, social, and cultural dimensions provides a holistic understanding of the complex interplay between migration processes and societal advancement.

**Questions and Discussion:**

As we open the floor to questions and discussion, we invite a thoughtful dialogue on the intricacies uncovered in this conceptual review. It is through such scholarly exchanges that we can further refine our comprehension of the profound implications of remittances and migration on social development.


## Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature by Hein de Haas

**Understanding the Intertwined Worlds:**

Hein de Haas, in his work titled "Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature," delves into the complex relationship between remittances, migration, and social development in developing countries. He offers a comprehensive review of existing literature, building a framework to analyze the intricate ways these elements interact and shape diverse social realities.

**Beyond Sending Money:**

De Haas challenges the simplistic view of remittances as mere financial transfers. He argues that they are embedded within the broader context of migration, serving as a **critical element** in household livelihood strategies. Migrant families often send money back home to support basic needs, education, healthcare, and even entrepreneurial ventures. These remittances become vital lifelines, contributing to **poverty reduction** and improved **living standards**.

**Beyond Individual Benefits:**

The paper extends beyond individual impacts, exploring the potential of remittances to **spur broader social development**. Invested in productive activities, they can stimulate local economies, generate **employment opportunities**, and foster infrastructure development. Remittances can also contribute to **improved education** and **healthcare systems**, leading to an overall rise in human capital and well-being.

**A Complex Landscape:**

However, de Haas acknowledges the multifaceted nature of this relationship. Remittances can sometimes reinforce **inequalities** within communities, with wealthier households benefiting more. Brain drain, where skilled individuals migrate, can leave sending communities with **labor shortages** and hinder long-term development. Additionally, reliance on remittances can create **dependence**, making recipient communities less resilient to economic shocks.

**Navigating the Nuances:**

The paper emphasizes the need for **context-specific** analysis to understand the true impact of remittances on social development. Different factors, such as migration patterns, recipient country policies, and cultural dynamics, need to be considered to develop sustainable development strategies. De Haas calls for **policy interventions** that maximize the positive impacts of remittances while mitigating potential drawbacks.

**In Conclusion:**

"Remittances, Migration, and Social Development" by Hein de Haas is a valuable resource for any Master's Sociology student interested in the intersections of migration, development, and social realities. It provides a nuanced understanding of remittances, moving beyond simplistic narratives to highlight their complex interplay with social structures and their potential to both empower and challenge development paths.


"Remittances, Migration and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature" by Hein De Haas is a comprehensive study that examines the role of migrant remittances in the development of sending countries. The paper can be divided into several key points:

1. **Migration and Development**: The study begins by discussing the relationship between migration and development, highlighting the importance of remittances as a key factor in the development process. It emphasizes that the developmental impact of migration depends on the interaction between migrants and their home communities, as well as the policies and programs implemented by both sending and receiving countries.

2. **Remittances and Poverty Reduction**: De Haas argues that remittances can play a significant role in reducing poverty, as they often flow to the poorest households and are used for basic needs such as food, housing, and education. However, the study also acknowledges that the developmental impact of remittances is not limited to poverty reduction, as they can also be used for infrastructure, health, and other community-level investments.

3. **The Role of Remittances in Development**: The paper explores the various ways in which remittances can contribute to development, including direct investments in infrastructure, health, and education, as well as indirect effects such as gender empowerment and social inclusion. It also discusses the potential trade-offs between different uses of remittances, such as the choice between investing in infrastructure or human capital.

4. **Challenges and Opportunities**: De Haas identifies several challenges in the literature on remittances and development, including the need for better data and more rigorous evaluation methods. He also highlights the potential of digital technologies to transform the way remittances are sent and used, as well as the role of diaspora organizations and networks in facilitating development projects.

5. **Future Research**: The study concludes by suggesting directions for future research on remittances and development. This includes a call for more interdisciplinary and longitudinal research, as well as a focus on the role of digital technologies and diaspora networks in shaping the development impact of remittances.

In summary, De Haas's "Remittances, Migration and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature" provides a comprehensive overview of the role of migrant remittances in the development of sending countries. By examining the various ways in which remittances can contribute to development, the study highlights the importance of understanding the complex interactions between migration, remittances, and development policies.


Saturday, December 16, 2023

Cervical cancer kills 500,000 people every year, fear is not checked in time

 Cervical cancer kills 500,000 people every year, fear is not checked in time

Everyone has a mother, sister-in-law, brother-in-law in their house. They may have looked healthy. However, in reality, they are always at risk of a fatal disease. That is - cervical cancer. Every woman between 30 and 60 years of age is at risk of this disease.

Women who are married at a young age, have many children, have sexual relations with many people, and take family planning pills for a long time are at high risk of cervical cancer. Women who have sex only once in their life are equally at risk of this disease.

Because of this danger, it is in the first place among the cancers that occur in women. After this disease, the treatment is expensive and complicated. "That's why it's better not to get sick", said Dr. Sarita Ghimire says, 'And, that can be done easily.'

Expert experience

Gynecologist and oncologist Sarita Ghimire, who has permanent residence in Ramechhap, is an MBBS and MD from the Institute of Medical Studies (IOM).

When he got his MD in 2004 in Gynecology and Obstetrics, cancer hospitals were just starting to open in Nepal. Along with this, the number of cancer patients was increasing rapidly.

Dr. is looking at that situation. Ghimire went to Bharatpur Cancer Hospital and took special training related to cancer. After that, she also went to Pakistan and UK for specialist training. Since then, it has been 15 years since he worked in the prevention of cervical cancer.

Dr. is currently working as a chief consultant at Talchikhel Cancer Care Foundation in Lalitpur. Ghimire's emphasis is on early disease detection. For this purpose, she reaches district after district to raise public awareness. In his experience, 6 to 8 out of 100 people who come to the hospital for cervical check-up have already reached the transition stage of cancer. Dr. Ghimire says, 'This data shows the benefits of raising public awareness.'

When she joined Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital, she became more active in running camps in the districts. In those camps, information was given about various cancers including cervical cancer, breast cancer. Women have more cervical cancer, but since it can be prevented, the number of people who come to the hospital for examination has increased. There is an experience of wandering. And, it has given him professional satisfaction.

In the camps, she used to keep scary photos, afraid to go to the hospital for an examination. It is human nature not to take anything seriously and not to change habits until fear arises in the mind, Dr. Ghimire says, 'which will become fatal itself tomorrow.'

According to him, around 528,000 women in the world suffer from cervical cancer every year. What is the situation in Nepal? "In Nepal, 20-22 percent of women who come to the hospital for cancer treatment suffer from cervical cancer", Dr. Ghimire says, 'Detailed study is yet to be done on this.'

There are no symptoms at first

After the cancer of the cervix has increased a lot, foul-smelling and blood-tinged water starts to flow. The appearance of blood even when there is no menstruation or the appearance of blood again in women who have dried up their periods is also a sign of cervical cancer. When this cancer spreads a lot, it causes bloating, leg swelling, waist and back pain, and problems with defecation and urination.

To avoid this, women who have reached the age of 30 and who have had sex, even if it is only once in their life, should be examined by a trained health worker at least once every three to five years. Ghimire suggests. She says, 'Women who have dry periods and who have undergone surgery due to the possibility of cancer should also undergo regular examination of the uterus.'

During the examination, the health workers put medicine in the mouth of the uterus and check the visual inspection with acetic acid (VREA). Earlier, Pap Smear Test (PST) was used to detect the presence of cancer infection in the mouth of the cervix or not. VREA is more of a scientific method than that.

Infection can be prevented if known

Cervical cancer is caused by infection with a virus called human papilloma. This virus takes the form of cancer after 15 to 20 years of infection. Dr. According to Ghimire, the human papilloma virus can survive for 15-20 years. If the immunity is high, the body can even eliminate it. In those with low immunity, it causes subtle changes and causes cancer.

Cervical cancer can be prevented by knowing before regular check-up. Ghimire says. "However, our women are so involved in household responsibilities that they don't even have time to think of a hospital until the illness takes a serious form."

Are you inactive? You may have such a serious illness

 Are you inactive? You may have such a serious illness

"There is a greater risk of cancer to those who smoke a single cigarette every day, than there is a greater risk to those who avoid work, exercise and hard work and lead an inactive life."

A lazy and inactive lifestyle along with the use of comforts and facilities is making our society sick. Go to everyone's house now, you will find someone suffering from diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, uric acid, varicose veins, osteoporosis.

To get rid of such a problem, we must promote physical activity like labor, exercise, sports in our daily routine.

What can be done?

Going for a morning walk, jogging, skipping rope, playing the beat, running the treadmill, playing sports, swimming, hiking, dancing, yoga, aerobics, zumba, ballet, salsa, hiking, walking Riding a bicycle, riding a static bicycle, going to the gym, climbing stairs, jogging, playing wushu, sailing a boat, doing water exercises, gardening or gardening.

What should be the exercise?

The World Health Organization has considered the following features as indispensable in scientific exercise for health protection:

1. Intensity – Exercise should be intense enough to increase the heart and breathing rate and break a sweat once.

2. Duration (prolonged) – Exercise should be done continuously for at least 15 to 30 minutes without stopping.

3. Regular: Exercise should be repeated at least 3 times a week.

As indicated by Eastern health science, the inclusion of the following dimensions in scientific exercise is considered indispensable –

1. During exercise, the heart rate and breathing rate should increase as well as sweating profusely.

2. All the joints of the body should be moved once.

3. Exercise should not only affect the muscles and bones, but also affect the soft organs in the body, such as the intestines, kidneys, liver, liver, lungs, heart and brain.

How to exercise

1. Exercise should not be started randomly. It should also be prepared beforehand. A place full of natural beauty, pollution-free, with sufficient air play and light should be selected.

2. Half an hour before the start, you should drink two glasses of water enough and right before the start, but you should not drink water immediately after the exercise.

3. Patients with special diseases and conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure should not exercise randomly and only exercise as prescribed by the doctor.

4. Exercise should only be done to the best of one's ability, one should not come to the competition and try to do it haphazardly. Before starting, warm-up (up and relaxation-loosening) exercises should be done.

5. Exercise-specific clothes, such as shoes, belts, t-shirts, if any, should be worn only. Also, it is very important that these materials are comfortable.

6. You should not be nervous or stressed while exercising. Be sure to set a certain time regularly and relax for a while after exercising.

Benefits –

1. Exercise helps to maintain a balanced body weight. By exercising regularly, fat people lose weight and thin people gain weight.

2. Exercise helps keep the heart, blood vessels and respiratory organs healthy. Regular exercise has been found to reduce bad cholesterol and increase good cholesterol in the blood, thus reducing the risk of heart and blood vessel diseases. Exercise helps to reduce high blood pressure and increase low blood pressure, while exercise also plays an important role in controlling diabetes.

3. Exercise plays a big role in stress management. Mental problems like anxiety, depression, fear and depression can be curbed by exercising. After exercising, the mood is refreshed, confidence and creativity increase, mental processes such as memory, rhythm, attention and concentration are strengthened. Exercising for a long time does not reduce the cognitive ability of the brain.

4. Strengthens muscles, skeleton and nervous system. Purifies the blood. Increases digestive capacity. It helps to solve problems like indigestion, indigestion, gastric acidity, constipation.

5. Exercise also helps to get rid of the kulat.

6. Exercising habit increases physical, mental and sexual ability.

7. Exercise also helps to increase resistance to cancer.

8. It helps a lot in the prevention of non-communicable diseases.

9. It is especially beneficial for those with insomnia.

10. Does not allow you to grow old quickly.

The author Yogi Narharinath is the Medical Director of Yoga and Naturopathy Hospital Bharatpur-1, Wageshwari, Devghatdham, Chitwan.

10 myths and facts about rabies

 10 myths and facts about rabies

In Nepal too, Rabies Day is being celebrated by organizing various programs with the basic slogan of 'Adoption of one health, zero death from rabies'. The World Health Organization's Global Strategic Plan aims to reduce human deaths from dog-bite rabies to zero by 2030. In this context, let's analyze the misconceptions and scientific facts about rabies in our society.

Myth-1: Rabies occurs when bitten by a dog or other animal that is aggressive and has fins in its mouth.

Fact: It's normal for dogs to bite when they feel unsafe and scared. This is a natural behavior of dogs. But dogs with rabies will bite any person for no reason. It is also not true that aggressiveness and foaming at the mouth is rabies. While most rabies-infected animals are aggressive, some animals may appear very passive at first. Symptoms such as fever and fatigue are early signs of rabies in animals or humans. An infected animal may have difficulty standing and may suffer from lameness and paralysis.

Myth-2: Rabies is transmitted only through bites.

Fact: Rabies can be transmitted not only by the bite of a dog or other animal with rabies, but also if the saliva of the suspected animal comes into contact with different membranes or wounds of the body.

Misconception-3: If a mouse or rabbit bites you at home, you get rabies.

Fact: Rabies is rarely transmitted to humans from rats and rabbits. Therefore, post-bite rabies vaccine is not required for domestic rabbit and rat bites. However, if bitten by a wild rabbit, mouse or rat species, it is advisable to vaccinate on the advice of an infectious disease specialist.

Myth-4: There is no cure for rabies.

Fact: Rabies is preventable. Vaccines are available for both humans and animals to prevent the spread of rabies. If you have been bitten by an animal suspected of having rabies, the wound should be immediately cleaned thoroughly with soap and water for 10-15 minutes and vaccinated within 24 hours of the bite. But after seeing the symptoms of the disease, it is not possible to treat the rabies disease.

Myth-5: I do not need a post-exposure human rabies vaccine if I am bitten by a vaccinated dog.

Fact: Although this is theoretically true, if the quality of the vaccine, the time of administration, the method and the physical condition of the dog are not suitable, even after vaccination, the dog may develop rabies. Therefore, even if the dog is vaccinated against rabies, it should be consulted by a doctor. A doctor will evaluate the bite wound to determine if a post-exposure vaccine is needed.

  Myth-6: Some people still think that 20 or more abdominal shots are required to treat rabies.

Fact: In today's treatment system, depending on the condition, three vaccinations are usually done on the arm on the day of the bite, on the third day and on the seventh day.

  Misconception-7: Vaccination against rabies in humans increases the risk of getting sick and also affects memory.

Fact: Older human vaccines had some side effects but the new human vaccine that is currently available does not have side effects.

  Myth-8: Pets and non-exposed dogs and cats do not need to be vaccinated against rabies.

Fact: Domesticated dogs can also be at risk of rabies from sneaking out of the house and from wild animals in the neighborhood. Bats or other small wild animals infected with rabies can enter your home and come into contact with your dog at any time. Since rabies is a fatal disease, it is advisable to vaccinate pets and non-exposed dogs and cats against rabies.

Myth-9: Vaccination against rabies in pregnant and lactating women has negative effects on children and should not be vaccinated.

Fact: All modern vaccines are inactivated, safe and effective, so pregnant and lactating women can get the rabies vaccine without harm to the baby.

Myth-10: Young puppies do not need to be vaccinated for bites.

Fact: Puppies born to dogs that have been vaccinated against rabies and have fully developed immunity to rabies have the ability to fight the disease for at least three months of age. Therefore, in general, a dog under three months of age does not need to be vaccinated, but since we do not know much about the mother of the dog we have adopted, it is wise to get vaccinated against rabies even if a young child is bitten by a dog.

What are the benefits of consuming Chyawanprash in winter?

 What are the benefits of consuming Chyawanprash in winter?

Chyawanprash is considered nutritious for people of all age groups. Ayurveda says that Chyawanprash helps to increase the resistance to disease in the human body.

Currently, the multinational companies Dabur, Patanjali, Multani, Java and other companies are producing and selling Chyawanprash in the market. Among those companies, Dabur Chyawanprash, which is made by mixing various herbs, ghee, sesame oil and honey, is considered to be the leader.

The word Chyavanaprash from Sanskrit is a formula created with the ancient Indian knowledge of Ayurveda and modern science. Chyawanprash is a nutritious jam, which plays a role in making our health healthy and fit.

Ghee, sesame oil and honey act as stimulating agents to take the herbs deep into the cells. While honey helps to neutralize and protect the effects of other major elements. Chyawanprash helps to make muscles strong, supple and strong.

If you consume Chyawanprash, the skin becomes soft and shiny. Consuming Chyawanprash is also beneficial in reducing the signs of aging with increasing age. Similarly, Chyawanprash is considered beneficial for increasing memory and digestive system.

The company claims that Dabur Chyawanprash contains a mixture of various herbs, amla, ghee, sesame oil and honey.

How to use Chyawanprash?

Chyawanprash can be consumed at any time rather than at a specific time. Even in the winter season, consuming it is more beneficial to the body. Chyawanprash can also be consumed directly, but it is more useful if consumed with warm milk or warm water.

For adults, use one spoon twice a day, one spoon in the morning on an empty stomach, one spoon before breakfast and 30 minutes before dinner. For children between 3 and 12 years of age, half a teaspoon should be given twice a day.

Benefits of Chyawanprash

Chyawanprash helps to increase immunity. It is beneficial in cough and cold caused by dust and change of weather. It also helps to increase vigor and vigor in the body.

Consuming Chyawanprash is also said to help fight against malnutrition caused by lack of nutrients and wrong digestive system. Companies claim that Chyawanprash also works against various types of infections as it contains various chemical herbicides.

5 things to teach children to develop leadership qualities

 5 things to teach children to develop leadership qualities

All parents want to teach their children useful things. They want to develop their personality well so that they can achieve success when they grow up.

To achieve success in life, parents should also develop leadership qualities in their children. Developing leadership qualities in children means building their confidence and encouraging their growth on a personal, professional level.

If a child has leadership qualities, he can do excellent work in his field of interest. There is a thought in the society that politics means leadership. But leadership is necessary not only in politics, but also in family and society. Therefore, the child should be taught what leadership development is.

Children can achieve success in their field if leadership qualities are developed during their physical, emotional, intellectual and mental development.

The best way to develop leadership qualities in a child is by showing something. Communicating with the child should be done effectively in a way that reflects responsibility and empathy. A child also learns a lot from parents who are leading in the work field and in society. The child remembers and follows what the parents do. Seeing leadership skills in the behavior of parents, children also start to adopt it.

As much as parents play an important role in developing leadership qualities in children, school teachers also play an important role. Therefore, to develop leadership qualities in children, teachers and parents should teach the child mainly these five things.

Communication skills

This is a skill that every child should have. Communication skills can help every person to move forward in life. It is said that 'the flour of those who speak is sold, even the rice of those who do not speak is not sold'. Therefore, the child should be taught to speak openly and clearly in front of others. If children grow up and want to make a career in media, politics, marketing, then 'communication skills' are very useful for them.

Nowadays, there is a trend of taking various trainings to improve communication skills. But if parents encourage the child to talk to everyone from an early age, it will be beneficial for them.

to admit defeat

Children of parents who adopt a positive attitude towards difficulties and mistakes have the ability to learn new things. Children participate in many activities but can become frustrated if they lose. Don't stop trying even if you lose. Children should be taught that they will succeed if they keep trying. It should be explained to the child that both victory and defeat must be accepted in life. If the habit of accepting defeat is developed in children, this quality is helpful for leadership development.

To participate in social events

Leadership qualities can be developed in children only when children actively participate in social work. Children should be encouraged to participate in social programs to develop these qualities. By participating in social events, they learn to cooperate with others. It also enhances their leadership qualities.

To participate in sports

Sports are not only important for physical activity, but also for mental health. Children involved in games or sports can solve their own problems. Such children often focus on problem solving. Which also develops leadership qualities in them.

Helping to increase confidence

You should help your children to increase their confidence from childhood. To increase self-confidence, the child should be encouraged to participate in extracurricular activities, school functions and social events etc. Such activities increase children's confidence. A confident child often does not hesitate to try new things. This is one of the most important qualities for leadership.

Why don't children like to go to school?

 Why don't children like to go to school?

A child who always goes to school sometimes suddenly refuses to go. They are afraid to go to school, cry, shout, fight. In front of such stubbornness of children, even the parents are helpless and do not send them to school according to their wishes. If such a situation occurs sometimes, it is not serious.

But in some cases children do not agree to go to school even for a long time. Parents' efforts to send the child to school are failing. There is a situation where it is difficult to send someone, who is sent soon, comes back again and sends it the next day.

In such a situation, some parents who are fed up with this behavior of children, instead of understanding the reason why the child does not go to school, think that the child is lying or making excuses and send him to school by beating him. Which is absolutely wrong.

They may not want to go to school because of the school environment, friends or teachers. In this case, instead of beating them, it is important to understand why they don't want to go.

Bullying from peers

School is also a place where friends gather. Most of the children have formed a group in school among their age group and close friend group. Some children may feel isolated because they cannot fit into an already established group. Not only that, sometimes there may be bullying from friends at school. At school, the actions of his friends like teasing, teasing, bullying, teasing and bullying by his friends can make him unable to say anything and fear can gradually settle in the child's heart. Because of that fear, hearing the name of the school can cause a headache for the child.

Consider yourself weak

In school, a child has to compete with his friends in everything. If he is weak in studies like other classmates or is repeatedly told by others, he will consider himself weak and lose confidence, who may not go to school. Furthermore, if a child takes longer to learn than other children, they may become more anxious and have trouble concentrating.

AI generated picture

Fear of being different

If he takes more time to learn than other children, if he cannot answer any question in class, his deficiency is seen as a joke in school. When unable to answer the question, the teacher reprimands the children, compares them with others, friends also tease them, so the children start looking for excuses to hide their weakness. It reduces the morale of children.

Failure to complete tasks on time

In school, teachers not only make them practice in school, but also give them homework to complete at home. In such a situation, some children do not understand the concept of practice or are afraid of being scolded by the teacher when they cannot complete their class work and homework. In such a situation, they think that the best way to avoid this abuse is not to go to school. So they make excuses not to go to school.

Can be anxiety

If a child tries to avoid going to school for various reasons, it can have a negative impact on him for life. For example, even after missing 6 months of schooling, it is difficult for children to rejoin the class later. This will put more mental pressure on them.

If there is a stressful environment in the school and it is not resolved in time, the child may develop anxiety. Inability to pay attention to studies, fear of exams, victimization by other children, beatings and torture by teachers may result in health problems in children such as: not wanting to go to school, fear of going to school, heaviness in the head after going to school, stomach ache, sometimes even fever.

Children suffering from such mental problems do not show any kind of physical illness even after a health check-up. In other words, a stressful environment can cause anxiety in them and make them feel uncomfortable physically as a reaction.

How to solve?

Try to find out the reason for not going to school

If such problems appear, first of all, they should find out the reason why such a problem appeared in them and start solving the problem. The first member close to the child is the parent. Parents should gently ask why they are not allowed to go to school. If the child does not speak, it is important to understand if something has happened at school. Because the more this problem is ignored, the more the child's mood deteriorates.

Behaving like a friend

Always talk to your child as a friend. So that he can tell you all his things openly.

After coming from school, you should try to mingle with the child. To begin with, you should tell about your school and the fun moments at school. So that they can be motivated to go to school thinking that it is a very fun place.

Do not scold if you are weak in studies

If the child is weak in studies, you can try to teach and explain to him. Parents or teachers should encourage them to work hard without pretending that they are weak.

Every teacher should patiently explain any topic to a child in a way they can understand. And, even if something goes wrong, they should be told affectionately so that they can take their weaknesses and mistakes and correct them in a positive way.

In children, if there is no improvement even after reprimanding, then medication should also be given in consultation with the relevant doctor.