Showing posts with label Covid-19. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Covid-19. Show all posts

Friday, June 19, 2020

Why are men more prone to COVID infections?

Why are men more prone to COVID infections?


Infection with the Noble Coronavirus affects people of all genders and age groups. But in the last six months, the number of people infected with the virus worldwide has shown that men are most at risk. About 7.5 million people have been infected with the coronavirus since December 2019. Of these, 3.9 million have recovered after treatment and four million have lost their lives. Of those infected, 82 percent are men and only 18 percent are women.

Although the statistics of different countries have been analyzed differently, men are more infected in each country. About 70.3 percent of those infected in Chinese hospitals are men. In the United States, 60.7 percent of infected people admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in New York City are men, and 67 percent of those who die are men. Eighty-two percent of those admitted to the intensive care unit in Lombardy, Italy, were men. Similarly, 69 percent of infected men in the UK and 79 percent in Spain. At the time of writing, 4,364 cases of infection have been confirmed in Nepal, of which 4,055 (92.91 percent) are men. Of those infected, 11.95 percent are men. 26.95 percent of the infected are women are free of infection. The proportion of infected men and women is 70-30. That is, men are twice as likely to be infected as women.

Of course, in Nepal, men spend more time out of the house than women, go abroad for employment, drink more alcohol, and smoke, so they may have more infections. However, as more men than women are infected worldwide, the search for biological causes has begun. This article will discuss the same biological causes.

The determination of whether a person is born a boy or a girl is made in the first stage of fetal development in the mother's womb. In the process of reproduction, the fetus is formed by the union of the sex chromosomes of the mother and father. The father has X and Y sex chromosomes, while the mother has both X chromosomes. If the father's Y and mother's X chromosomes match, a son is born. If the X chromosomes of both father and mother combine to form an embryo, a daughter is born. Therefore, the role of the chromosome of the father, not the mother, plays a role in determining the sex of the child born.

Professor of Immunology at the University of Oxford, Dr. According to Philip Goulder, the difference between men's and women's ability to fight disease begins here.
It is the job of the immune system to detect and produce antibodies that are needed to detect and resist any foreign harmful bacteria. The noble coronavirus is encoded in a recognizable protein X chromosome. But X chromosomes are two in females and only one in males. Therefore, the ability to prevent corona infection or the resistance expressed by the protein is automatically reduced by 50 percent in men. Dr. Philip Goulder believes that women have a greater ability to fight not only coronavirus but all diseases than men.

Another factor that differentiates men and women from coronavirus infection is the angiotensin-converting enzyme. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-2) is a type of enzyme present in the human body. Enzymes are catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions in the body. ACE-2 is a central component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which controls blood pressure, heals wounds, and regulates fluids in the body. This enzyme, discovered by Leonard Skags in 1956, indirectly increases blood pressure by constricting blood vessels. Therefore, ACE-2 inhibitors are used in the treatment of most heart diseases.

When the coronavirus infects humans, the virus's protein attaches to the same ACE-2 enzyme and travels to cells in various parts of the body. As a result, it opens the door to infection in the lungs while taking oxygen through the blood and blood vessels. According to an article published in the European Heart Journal, ACE-2 is more common in men than in women. It occurs in large quantities in the lungs, heart, and testicles of men. Because ACE-2 occurs in the testicles, there are more males than females in the testicles. Iziah Sama explains. Similarly, published in the ‘Journal of Virology’. According to Hong Peng Xia's article, ACE-2 has the appearance of being attached to a thorn-shaped protein spike on the surface of the current Nobel coronavirus. Thus, the physical constitution of men has increased the risk of corona infection in men than in women.

According to a recent article in Science News, coronavirus infections in men have been linked to another factor. According to the article, androgen hormones also play an important role in increasing the risk of infection. The androgen hormone helps men to produce the hormone testosterone and make sperm. The same hormone also helps the coronavirus to enter the cell. Men cannot be fertile without the hormone testosterone. Infections in China, Spain, Italy, and the United States have been linked to androgen hormones and coronavirus infections.

The androgenic hormone regulates the transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme in the male prostate gland. The prostate gland helps men to urinate and keep sperm alive. Therefore, transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme is produced more in men. ‘Cell Journal’ According to Marcus Hoffmann, published in, coronavirus infection also depends on the surface membrane of the transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme. The membrane of this enzyme combines the thorny proteins of the virus with the DNA in human cells. Men also have an increased risk of coronavirus infection due to this enzyme.

Italian molecular cancer specialist Dr. According to Andre Alimonti, some of the men who used androgen in some of the experiments there did not have to go to the hospital because of Kovid-19. Thus, the transmembrane protease serine 2 enzyme produced in men during prostate operation and regulation has increased the risk of corona infection in men.
The fact is that men are more at risk of coronavirus infection than women, not only for socio-economic reasons but also for biological reasons.

(Koju, who has a doctorate in zoology, is the head of the Faculty of Natural Resource Management under the Center for Post-Graduate Studies, Nepal Engineering College, Pokhara University.)

Thursday, June 11, 2020

Corona test: What are RDT and PCR?

Two methods of corona testing

The Kovid-19 epidemic has affected millions of people. Effective treatment is being sought, but not yet discovered. The spread of the infection has been rapid in Nepal recently. Complaints are growing in Nepal that the test itself is not effective.

There are two methods of corona testing in Nepal to find out if a person has a corona infection - PCR and RDT.

What is PCR?

PCR (Polymerized Chain Reaction) is a modern technology for detecting the genetic genes of a bacterium. It is being used to find out if there is a coronavirus infection in the body. PCR is used to test the protein by extracting a swab (nasal or throat fluid) sample.

The PCR method quickly copies millions to billions of specific DNA samples. This will help scientists to take the smallest sample of DNA and study it in detail. PCR was invented in 1983 by American biologist Kerry Mullis at Sets Corporation. This is the basic method for genetic testing, including analysis of old DNA samples and the identification of infectious agents. PCR has now become a common and often indispensable technology, used in medical and clinical laboratories in a wide range of research in biomedical medicine and criminal forensics.

Simply put, PCR detects viruses in the body. Therefore, it is considered reliable for coronavirus testing. According to experts, the PCR test is best done within 10 days of the week of infection. After 10 days, the actual results may not come from the PCR test method.

PCR helps to detect any bacterium, not just the corona. Its main function is to detect the gene of the target bacterium. This method has been found to give more than 70 percent correct results.

What is RDT?

RDT (Rapid Diagnostic Test) is a medical diagnostic test, which is quick and easy. It is used for initial or emergency medical examination. Blood is drawn from the body and the test results can be seen in 20 to 25 minutes.

It is being used to detect disease-fighting antibodies in the body. Corona's RDT test is not effective in Nepal, raising questions about its reliability. The WHO also does not consider this method reliable for corona testing. Experts say that it is best to use it only for general surveys.

Different results of RDT and PCR

The results of RDT and PCR in Nepal so far have been very different. Why does this happen? Infectious Diseases Specialist of Shukraraj Tropical and Infectious Diseases Hospital, Dr. According to Sher Bahadur Pun, the results also depend on the time of testing of the infected. He says, ‘RDT only shows up after about 12 days of infection. It does not show if you have just been infected. The PCR shows up when checking. '

He says the type of antibody also varies with the test results. There are two types of antibodies, IGN and IgG. If IGN is seen, it means that there is a new infection. It appears on the PCR ', he explains,' IgG may not show on the PCR. As it appears after about two weeks, it does not appear on the PCR test. '

According to him, the PCR test is positive in the newly infected person and the RDT is negative. However, testing 10 days after infection can show PCR negative and RDT positive.

(With agency support)

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Is Covid-19 really that deadly?

In some people, this can lead to life-threatening complications.
This article looks at COVID-19 fatalities and most at-risk groups.
It also explores what the disease does to the body and how it compares to flu and acute acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).

For more information on the COVID-19 outbreak, visit our Coronavirus Hub and follow our live update page. Older people and those with current health conditions are at higher risk for serious complications, which can be fatal. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 80% of people who develop the disease have mild to moderate symptoms and recover completely without the need for hospital treatment. 1 in 5 people will experience a serious illness. Older people may develop serious symptoms, such as ongoing health conditions, Some severe COVID-19 symptoms include difficulty breathing and feeling of chest pressure.
COVID-19 can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening problems, including:
The novel coronavirus enters the body through the eyes, nose or mouth. The virus then travels to the lungs and stimulates the airway layer. This inflammation irritates the surrounding nerves and causes coughing. The virus then spreads to the s lung and causes infection and damage, reducing the supply of oxygen to the bloodstream. When the oxygen level in the bloodstream decreases, the heart has to work hard to supply enough oxygen to the organs and the rest of the body. Meanwhile, the immune system is working to fight off the infection, and in doing so it can cause inflammation throughout the body. This inflammation lowers blood pressure, causing the heart's organs to pump oxygen. Lung enlargement of the lungs or pneumonia due to ung lungs. Pneumonia progresses to lung failure, in which case a person may need a ventilator to breathe. In people with current damage to the heart or the lungs, these problems can be fatal. Older people are at greater risk for serious complications due to decreased elasticity in lung tissue and less robust immune function.
The mortality rate of COVID-19 varies depending on where in the world a person is, their age and whether they have health problems.
The mortality rate of COVID-19 is generally higher in the older population. The state of the local or national health system also affects mortality. If hospitals are overwhelmed with severe cases of COVID-19, they may not have the resources to deal with them. It is important to note that the number of COVID-19 trials in a given area can significantly affect mortality data. Case - Mortality Ratio refers to the mortality ratio among those with confirmed COVID-19.

Current reports indicate that in the United States, the case-to-death ratio is 5.9%.
As most people recover with mild cases of COVID-19, this number will decrease with increasing testing. However, among the elderly and those with health conditions, deaths may be higher. The symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to the symptoms of the flu, and both cause respiratory disease. However, a person develops flu symptoms more quickly than COVID-19 symptoms. Doctors refer to the time between the onset of the infection and the symptoms that occur during the incubation period. The flu lasts only a few days, but the symptoms of COVID-19 can take up to 2 weeks. Flu symptoms are mild to some, and to others they can be severe and life-threatening.
According to WHO, current research on the severity of COVID-19 suggests:
15% of cases are severe, and people need oxygen support 5% of cases are significant, and people need mechanical ventilation. This suggests that COVID-19 may be more severe or more severe than the flu. Other research suggests that the flu spreads faster than COVID-19. Additionally, COVID-19 affects fewer children than the flu. Overall, the global mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher than the flu. The reported death toll was 3-4% in reported cases. For comparison, the seasonal flu mortality rate is generally less than 0.1%, although this varies depending on health care access. However, due to the large number of asymptomatic and mild cases, most COVID-19 cases have not been reported, meaning mortality rates are likely to be very low.
Learn more about the difference between COVID-19 and the flu.
Another type of disease caused by coronavirus is SARS. Between 2002 and 2004, the spread of SARS in China spread to other countries. SARS can also cause serious problems such as pneumonia and severe breathing problems. According to the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases, the SARS mortality rate is approximately 10%. Although more research is needed, COVID-19 can spread faster than SARS, although it may reduce the likelihood of serious disease. There have been no reports of SARS in humans since 2004. Most people with COVID-19 experience mild to moderate symptoms and most recover without the need for hospital treatment. For some people, including the elderly and ongoing health conditions, COVID-19 can cause serious symptoms and, at times, become a serious threat.

One good way to prevent infection is to prevent COVID-19.
As the coronavirus novel spreads around the world, people and businesses are locked in our communities and across the United States, the virus is clearly feared. But of all the many viruses that can infect humans, what is the most deadly epidemic in a century? The virus that causes COVID-19 is not very lethal. Coronaviruses that cause Acute Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) cause 10% of infections and 30% to 40% of cases, respectively. Scientists are not sure that COVID-19 is nearly 10 times more deadly than seasonal flu, causing 0.1% of infected people to die until the tests are widespread.
Farhall, MD, Professor of Medicine and Molecular Biology and Biochemistry and Head of Infectious Diseases at the UCI School of Medicine. After collecting data on hotspots around the world, Fortale hopes today we can reduce deaths. Klein, professor of infectious diseases at UCI School of Medicine. Buchmeier believes that the virus, although fatal, is considered an epidemic of seasonal flu, in which one person infects another two or three. In contrast, with Measles, a person infects 18, or chicken pox, a person 12. However, these two most contagious diseases can be controlled by vaccination. But this is a virus that has never been seen in humans, so no person gets immunity.
It can easily spread from one person to another in the form of influenza and infect the upper respiratory system, making it very dangerous. The COVID-19 virus spreads through the upper airways - including the mouth and nose - by coughing, sneezing, huffing, and puffing, and is loud, according to Fortale. Furthermore, we are discovering that the virus is accidentally spreading a few days before infected people begin to experience symptoms. Neither SARS nor MERS can be easily or widely disseminated.
This allows the virus to enter the cells quickly, gain a firm grip, and spread quickly throughout the body. The virus also attacks the lower respiratory tract - bronchial tubes and s lungs, where it causes pneumonia. This triggers an inflammatory response as the body tries to fight off the attackers. In some people - about 15% - this immune response initiates a cyclic transgression of the body's immune system called a cytokine storm. "Not only can you cause serious damage to the lungs, it may or may not be a direct cause of the virus," Fortale said. Fortale said some people were seriously ill or died. Researchers have observed that other coronaviruses provoke similar cytokine overexpression.

Age, sex, and chronic condition increase the risk
The mortality rate is higher among those over 70, and mortality increases with age, Fortel said. Obesity and other chronic conditions - such as high blood pressure, diabetes and the underlying heart, lungs and kidney disease - increase the risk of serious infections, Fortis said. The prevalence of these diseases in the elderly may be higher in the elderly and in some people the onset of dementia is related to the symptoms they experience, which can have devastating effects on the virus in nursing and care homes. Adding although doctors are still unaware, research has shown that cytokine overexpression patterns are based on age and sex with other coronaviruses. Fortale and Buchmeier, members of the UC Irvine Center for Virus Research, are now in the news, and the subject of the UCI Health Clinical Trial is promising to treat COVID-19.