Tuesday, September 26, 2023

Study Conclusion: The body feels 27 types of love

 Study Conclusion: The body feels 27 types of love

Researchers have created a map of the human body, which shows the different feelings of love and its intensity.

Researchers from Aalto University in Finland used data from surveys conducted on hundreds of people to prepare the map.

Information about 27 types of love experiences was collected from those people.

For example, there are romantic love, sexual love, love of parents, love of friends, love of strangers, love of nature, love of God and love of self.

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Do they feel different types of love in their body with those people or not? It was also asked how intensely they felt physically and mentally.

What has been discovered in that sequence is that there is a continuum from being weak to being strong in different types of love. The research has been published in the journal Philosophical Psychology.

The intensity of love

Researchers say that intense feelings of love can be felt throughout the body. That fact was discovered from the responses given by young women receiving higher education.

Philosopher Partili Rinne, the coordinator of the study, says, "Although this is not particularly unusual, it is worth noting that the feeling of love associated with close relationships is the same and is felt with the greatest intensity."

The participants in the survey were asked to color in a shape of the human body so that what part of the body creates the feeling of love and how do they feel physically and humanly in different ways? And let them tell you how pleasant that feeling was and what it had to do with touch.

Finally, they were asked to rate the closest type of love.

According to Rinne, those types of love that are particularly close to each other have sexual and romantic aspects.

According to researchers, all types of love are felt most in the head. But its intensity is felt differently in different parts of the body. For some, the effect is on the chest, while for others, it is felt throughout the whole body.

Effects from the heart to the brain

Rinne says, 'It is also interesting to find out about the proven relationship between the physical and human intensity of emotion and its pleasant feeling. The more the feeling of love is in the body, the more it is felt mentally and the more pleasant it is.

According to him, as we move from intense love to less intense love, the arousal in the chest becomes progressively weaker.

Perhaps this is because love is associated with the thought process for strangers. It can also be because there is a pleasant sensation in the head.

The researcher says that there is a need for more studies on this. In addition, researchers have also paid attention to the fact that cultural differences play an important role in love.

Rinne says, "If this study was done in a more religious community, the feeling of love for God would have been more intense."

Similarly, if the relationship is with parents, then people feel the most love for their children.

- from the BBC

What should you pay attention to in the ninth month of pregnancy?

 What should you pay attention to in the ninth month of pregnancy?

The ninth month of pregnancy is the month when the baby is born. Therefore, by the time it reaches the ninth month, a lot of changes have taken place in the body of a pregnant woman.

At this time, health problems such as stomach ache, sometimes the stomach feels like a hard rock, even after drinking a little water, there is a sudden urge to urinate, but little urine comes out. Similarly, the movement of the baby inside the stomach is a little less than before.

Pregnant women may have different problems at this time. But usually in the ninth month, the problem of back pain due to the big stomach, difficulty in walking due to the baby's head coming down, lack of appetite, stomach cramps even after eating a little.

Things pregnant women should be aware of

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Especially at this time, if water flows from the genitals, blood appears along with the water, and the movement in the baby's stomach is very low, you should see a doctor immediately.

Is it necessary to take any medicine at this time or not?

Iron and calcium supplements should be taken regularly during pregnancy. In addition, the doctor prescribes other medicines after looking at the condition of the pregnant woman.

What women who are taking medication for chronic diseases should pay attention to

Especially at this time, medicine should be taken under the supervision of a doctor. Do not self-medicate. Because the dose of chronic disease medicine may need to be increased or changed according to the condition of the pregnant woman.

Taking chronic medicine does not have any negative effect on the unborn child. Because doctors have classified drugs as A, B, C, D and E according to the condition and disease of pregnant women. Medicines are given accordingly. Similarly, some people have high blood pressure before, while some people have it after pregnancy.

What should you pay attention to when taking long-term medicine during pregnancy?

Pregnant women who are taking medication for chronic diseases should take the medication under the supervision of a doctor. Because some chronic disease drugs have many side effects and some drugs have less side effects. Likewise, if a pregnant woman has diabetes, eating less sugary, greasy, and bitter foods along with medication, and eating little by little but in short bursts can keep diabetes in balance.

What medicine should not be taken during pregnancy?

There is no drug that should not be taken during pregnancy. Rather, it is about what medicine to take and how much to take for what purpose. But you should take the doctor's advice while taking medicine. Self-medication can be dangerous.

What to do if you are constipated during pregnancy?

Constipation can occur due to diet, lack of water in the body during pregnancy. At this time, as the body's hormones are changing, as well as having to take iron and calcium medicine regularly, constipation can be a problem.

In such a situation, you can eat plenty of green vegetables, vegetables, fruits, pulses, eat plenty of fiber foods, exercise regularly, and drink at least two liters of water every day with meals. In the same way, instead of lying on your back, if you are careful not to stand for a long time, you can use medicine if constipation is not cured.

It is better to avoid constipation during pregnancy as much as possible. For that, you can avoid eating greasy, bitter, sour food, not consuming junk food, drinking plenty of water, and eating plenty of fiber-rich foods.

7 myths and facts about IVF

 7 myths and facts about IVF

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) technology developed by medical science is a boon for couples who cannot conceive naturally. Many couples have achieved child happiness through this technique.

But some misconceptions related to IVF are prevalent in the society. India-based Birla Fertility and IVF consultant Dr. Swati Mishra has tried to tear it down.

Myth 1: IVF results in more babies

Fact: According to international practice, the probability of multiple pregnancy in IVF is 20 percent. If you don't get pregnant the first time after IVF, this complication increases. If the woman is older or if IVF is repeatedly failing, more than one embryo is transferred. In this way, multiple babies are likely to be born when the transferred embryos are in all the wombs.

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Myth 2: IVF carries a risk of cancer

Fact: No study or medical research has established any link between cancer and IVF. Men or women can undergo IVF (fertility treatment) without any risk of cancer. In this process, the child in the womb is at risk of cancer, nor is the risk of cancer even after the child grows up.

Myth 3: IVF is a painful procedure

Fact: Pain, suffering and problems are more common in IVF than in natural. For the first few days, women have to take hormone injections daily, so it may be painful, but now with the development of medicine, it has become easier.

Myth 4: Babies born through IVF are at risk of birth defects

Fact: The IVF procedure does not increase the risk of birth defects. Conversely, pre-implantation genetic testing of embryos rules out congenital defects or chromosomal defects in high-risk cases. This includes women over 35 years of age or men over 50 years of age or family history of genetic disorders.

Embryo 5: If the first IVF fails, all future possibilities are lost

Fact: If a couple's first IVF fails for some reason, it does not mean that the woman will not be able to get pregnant in the future. Rather, by understanding why this happened, treatment can be done to make IVF successful in the future. Similarly, there are many women who have conceived only after IVF four to five times. For this, laser assisted hatching or platelet rich plasma is kept in the uterus and a balanced diet rich in antioxidants is given.

Fetus 6 : IVF causes many complications during pregnancy

Fact: The best age for pregnancy for women is less than 33 years. After the age of 37, it decreases. During pregnancy, the risk increases for both the mother and the child. But in the process of IVF, complications due to age do not come much. However, if a patient suffering from infertility receives IVF treatment at the right time, the chances of getting pregnant are high.

Embryo 7 : IVF can completely solve the problem of infertility

Fact: This is not true. The success rate of IVF in couples under the age of 35 is about 40 percent. Also, its success depends on many factors. Such as the age of the woman, the cause of infertility and the hormonal status of the woman. In addition, there are many types of assisted reproductive procedures, including ovulation induction (OI) drugs, intrauterine insemination (IVF), etc. It also helps in conception.

Adapted from Femina Magazine

Why are there more urinary tract infections in women?

 Why are there more urinary tract infections in women?

According to a study, about one and a half million people in America suffer from urinary problems every year. Around one and a half million people worldwide are treated for it every year.

Bladder swelling is called 'cystitis' in medical language. It is called Urinary Tract Infection or UTI, which in most cases is caused by bacterial infection. This happens when the bladder (urethra) and its pipe (tract) become infected.

UTI is a common disease. It can affect people of any age, from newborns to the elderly. The study concluded that UTI is more common in women than in men. In women, the probability of infection is 60 percent, while in men, it is only 13 percent.

A housewife said that she could not pay attention to her health due to housework. Because of this, she says that she has been facing the problem of burning urine frequently. She said that after taking the medicine, she seemed to be cured for about a month and then relapsed again. After doing yoga and pranayama, he has experienced relief.

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The 37-year-old teacher said that she has been suffering from burning urine frequently. She narrates that she had to face such problems due to the lack of good toilet facilities in the school and the lack of an environment to pay attention to cleanliness. At that time, she said that she had a little stomach ache at first and then it started to hurt a lot. It is his experience that he got relief after taking a half holiday from school and getting checked and taking antibiotics.

Reasons why UTIs are more common in women

Bacterial infection in the urinary tract or bladder causes UTI. It can happen to both men and women.

According to Tanuj Lawania, senior registered doctor of Sharda Medical College Greater Noida, it is more likely to develop cystitis in women than in men. A woman's urethra is smaller than a man's. About 20 cm, Dr. Lavania says, 'When a woman is infected with bacteria, there is a greater chance that the bacteria will enter through the bladder. Therefore, 10 percent of women have at least one sinusitis. Most of them are recurring problems.

"If a UTI is left untreated, the infection can spread to the kidneys," says Jennifer Rohn, head of the Center for Urological Biology at University College London. UTIs are usually e. It is caused by an infection with coli bacteria, although many other bacteria can also cause the infection.

Symptoms of a UTI

Dr. According to Tanuj, women can have many symptoms. Frequent urination, burning sensation or pain while urinating, feeling of burning on the skin of the vulva while urinating, blood in the urine, if these symptoms are ignored for a long time, women may have high fever symptoms.

What does the doctor test?

Dr. Tanuj says, 'In such a clinical inquiry, if there is a suspicion of UTI, we initially make the woman undergo a urine test. In which urine microscopy and culture tests are performed.

In which the cause of the infection is seen through a routine microscope. It is known whether it is caused by bacteria or fungus. While through culture it is known which bacteria it is from so that the medicine related to it can be given.

Dr. Tanuj Lawania

Other causes of infection in women

Dr. Tanuj adds, "Though UTI can be seen in all age groups, it is more common in married women. Similarly, women who drink less water and urinate for a long time are more at risk. Because it gives a chance for bacteria to accumulate. Besides, those who use more jet sprays, use chemicals for cleaning, don't change undergarments frequently, and those who don't take full care of cleanliness may be more likely.

The risk of UTI infection is higher in pregnant women and women with diabetes. It can also happen after menopause because the number of friendly bacteria in the vagina decreases.

If you have frequent UTI infections

Dr. Tanuj says, "In case of repeated UTI infection, ultrasound examination of women is done. In this, the kidney and the kidney tube (ureter) are checked to see if they are okay. If there are stones in kidney or bladder, urine infection also occurs.

What problems does UTI cause in the elderly?

Around one and a half million people in the world get UTI infection every year. Most of them are old men. "After increasing age, there are common symptoms such as burning while urinating, fever, pain in the lower back, smell of urine," said Dr. Tanuj says, 'If the size of the prostate gland in men increases, it puts pressure on the urinary bladder. It reduces the flow of urine. Because of this, they are likely to get UTI.

She says that UTIs in men are more serious than in women. In this case, you may need to be admitted to the hospital. If such symptoms are observed, the medicine should be taken only after checking with the doctor. She says that medicine should not be taken without a doctor's advice.

What to do to prevent UTI?

To prevent UTI infection, pay attention to diet, take measures to strengthen immunity, do not use antibiotics without the advice of a doctor, drink plenty of water, drink at least two to three liters of water daily.

Likewise, use a condom during sexual intercourse, if there is no condition to use a condom, a woman should urinate immediately after sexual intercourse and wash her genitals with water. The toilet pan should be cleaned with water before using the public toilet. 

"You don't have to eat potatoes, rice and sweets in diabetes"

 "You don't have to eat potatoes, rice and sweets in diabetes"

People with diabetes often hear that 'you can eat it, you can't eat it, you shouldn't eat sweets'. As soon as the problem of diabetes appears, the patient is worried about having to stop eating.

Don't eat rice, don't eat potatoes, don't eat sugar and don't eat food made from flour. Now what? This is causing mental stress to the patient. In this case, because of diabetes, rice and potatoes should not be eaten? What is the reason for the increase in the problem of diabetes in young people? Diabetes and hormone specialist Dr. Edited excerpt from online journalist Sumitra Luitel's conversation with Deepak Malla:

It is heard that people with diabetes should not eat rice and potatoes. Is that so?

No doctor should tell a patient not to eat potatoes and rice. To control diabetes, lifestyle should be changed along with food. Eating a few potatoes a day does not mean that the patient's condition will worsen. On the day of eating potatoes, if you do not eat other carbohydrate foods, you will get a balance if you eat protein and fiber foods.

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People with diabetes should not eat potatoes, rice and sugary foods. Sometimes a small amount can be eaten. Do not eat potato-based dishes. Foods with a very small amount of potatoes can be eaten. But it is better to eat after measuring the sugar level.

Are there things that should not be eaten?

There are also things that diabetic patients should not eat. Things that should not be eaten are cigarettes, alcohol, tobacco, etc. In addition, rice, potato and sugary food can be eaten, so the daily potato dish, jerry raspberry should not be eaten, sometimes a small amount can be eaten.

Do not eat sweet food and outside food?

During any festival or family gathering, Gulia is made as food at home. At that time, other members of the family eat with pleasure and diabetic patients are told not to eat this and not to eat that. In this case, the patient's sugar increases due to the worry that I will not be able to eat. Therefore, sometimes very little sweet food can be eaten.

Someone's birthday has been celebrated at home, everyone has eaten cake, but even a person with diabetes can eat a piece of cake, dance for a while and be happy and not let the calorie expenditure of sugar increase. But if everyone eats the cake and goes to sleep with the stress of not being able to eat it, the sugar may increase the next day.

It is better for people with diabetes to eat food prepared outside the home. Preference should be given to fresh food cooked at home. It is not known what is mixed in sweets and packaged foods made outside the home and how they are made. But in home-made food, you know what has been added to it, and you can also estimate that if you eat this food in such quantity, sugar will not increase.

Don't eat fruit?

Diabetic patients can eat all kinds of fruits, but the quantity should be adjusted. But eating fruits with high glycemic index (a substance that increases blood sugar levels) such as mangoes, bananas, melons, and sweet potatoes in large quantities increases the sugar level. Therefore, eating less of these fruits is beneficial for the patient. It is just an illusion that one should not eat fruits.

Is it beneficial to eat bread instead of rice?

Most people with diabetes eat roti instead of rice or rice. Reduce the amount of carbohydrates in food. Rice and bread contain almost the same amount of sugar, which does not help to control diabetes.

Whatever you eat rice, roti, dough, you have to adjust the quantity and eat little. If you don't eat rice but eat 5-6 rotis in one meal, diabetes will increase instead of being controlled. So no matter what you eat, you should measure the calories and eat it. Rice, bread should be eaten less and vegetable salad should be eaten more.

Brown and brown rice are said to be good for diabetics, right?

Compared to white rice, the glycemic index of brown and brown rice is slightly lower. Therefore, brown and brown rice are somewhat better than white rice. But if there is only white rice in the house, if there is no brown rice, white rice can be eaten in small quantities. You can't eat a lot of brown rice because it's good, you have to eat it in moderation.

How important is it to check the daily sugar level?

Diabetic patients should make it a habit to check their sugar level daily. If the sugar level is checked daily, it is easy to control. During the sugar check, when the sugar level is high, the food can be eaten a little more.

Even if you don't exercise with food?

Controlling diabetes is not only about food, but also about exercise. You should walk briskly for 45 minutes daily, five days a week. They can do housework or other exercises for two days. By doing this, obesity is controlled and diabetes too.

Because of diabetes, it is important to avoid eye, kidney and heart problems by changing lifestyle and taking medicine.

Now it is said that the problem of diabetes has started to appear from the age of 20-22 years.

Recently, the problem of diabetes has been seen in young people from the age of 20-22 years. Earlier it was called diabetes as a disease that appears after 40-50 years.

Schools were closed for two years due to the lockdown due to Corona. Students could not go to school. They ate, read and slept sitting in one place at home. Due to which the problem of obesity has increased a lot. Due to this, the problem of diabetes has increased in the youth.

Another reason for increasing the problem of diabetes among young people is foreign employment. After going abroad, food and environment are different, separation from family, debt stress. It has also increased the problem of diabetes. How many people have come back with diabetes.

Diabetes has also increased due to laziness. Nowadays, due to working at home, using vehicles to go somewhere, and playing games on mobile phones etc., there is less physical activity due to which the risk of diabetes has increased in the youth.

Earlier there were many people who came with eye, kidney and heart problems due to diabetes. But now there is access to check for diabetes, so the complications caused by diabetes are less.

Can you quit medicine by changing your lifestyle?

Some say that I don't sleep, drink, smoke, and am not fat. They tell me how I got diabetes. But apart from all these reasons, diabetes can also be due to genetics. Even if you had diabetes at some point like during pregnancy, you can develop diabetes. This problem can also occur in those taking heart, cholesterol and high blood pressure medications.

If you start taking medicine, you have to take it for the rest of your life, so there are patients who do not want to take medicine. You don't need to start taking medicine as soon as it appears, you can control diabetes by changing your lifestyle. In the beginning, if the sugar level is 300 to 400, then medicine should be started. Medicines reduce other risks that can be caused by diabetes. If the amount of sugar is reduced by changing the medicine and lifestyle, then the medicine can be stopped.

If you stop taking the medicine and eat wildly again, adopt the old lifestyle of not exercising and do not follow up with the doctor, you may have to take medicine again if your sugar level increases.

What to do to prevent diabetes?

To prevent diabetes, one should maintain weight according to height, pay attention to healthy eating, do not smoke and drink alcohol and exercise daily. Also, reducing stress, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and fibrous foods reduces the risk of diabetes.

"There is also a need to discuss the mental health of teachers"

"There is also a need to discuss the mental health of teachers"

  Recently, there are many problems related to mental health in school students. This affects their ability to acquire skills and knowledge. At times, public awareness programs on mental health are targeted at students.

But the mental health of the teachers who teach the same children is not given much attention. Teachers may also be stressed by personal problems such as their home affairs and career. The effect of which can be seen in their work. It can have a direct impact on students' teaching and learning.

In this case, don't teachers need training on human health? How important is it to discuss the mental health of teachers? What is the teacher's health condition? In this context, psychiatrist Dr. Edited excerpt of online journalist Manisha Thapa's conversation with Vasudev Karki:

How important is it to discuss the mental health of teachers?

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Children are the foundations of the future. Teachers are the creators of children's future. Therefore, if the creator is not mentally healthy, the society of the future will not be prosperous. Therefore, it is very important to take care of the mental health of both children and teachers.

In the context of Nepal, there are many mental health programs targeting children and students. But by focusing on teachers, the discussion about mental health is reduced.

On the other hand, some time ago in America, there was a survey about the mental health of teachers. According to which 27 percent of the teachers were suffering from depression. In a prosperous country like America, teachers are going through mental problems like depression, but in a country like Nepal, the government has not been able to provide even the necessary services and facilities that teachers should get. It can be attributed to the recent teachers' movement. Even if only the teachers present in the movement are studied, 50 percent of them may have problems like depression.

In this case, if the mental condition of the teacher is not good, how can the children like the little buds get quality education from the education given by them? Therefore, it is very important to discuss the mental health of teachers.

Teachers have their own problems. Family matters, financial matters or various things are also making them stressed. Is the side-effect of such stress in the classroom or not?

If the teacher himself is in a stressful situation, its side-effect is completely falling in the classroom. A person who is mentally stressed may also have anxiety and depression. Due to stress, symptoms such as sleeplessness and dizziness may appear in them. How can he teach in the classroom who has not slept all night? On top of that, a teacher who is going through depression may have anger, impulses, and thoughts playing in his mind, and a teacher who comes to the classroom with a stressed mind either does not want to teach and is forced to teach.

Also, even a small mistake by a student in class can cause anger in the teacher. The result may be activities such as scolding and beating students. There are many examples of incidents of beatings by teachers from time to time. This can affect the mental health of not only the teachers, but also the students studying there. Not only that, the teacher may not be able to share enough knowledge as needed, which affects the students' learning.

How does the mood of teachers affect children?

If someone greets you with a smile when you go somewhere, the atmosphere is different. The same principle applies in the classroom. If the teacher looks cheerful and energetic, then even the students who are sitting in the classroom will get energy and vigor. They can easily absorb what is taught. They do not feel that the class is over.

But there is a lot of stress going on in the teacher's mind. He has no energy, no energy and comes with an angry face. And, if they are always presented in the same way in the class, students may not like to read, find it difficult to concentrate, and may not like to ask questions that they do not understand. Some teachers are kind enough to vent their anger on students due to the personal stress of homework. In this case, students are afraid to even sit in class. The class atmosphere is also negative.

All students consider their teachers as the storehouse of knowledge. Children consider teachers as their role models and they dream of being like teachers. Students follow not only the teacher's teaching but also their behavior. The direct effect on the students' emotional state and learning environment also depends on the teacher's presentation.

Even if the student is not scolded or beaten, some behavior of the teacher has a direct effect, right?


First, it was said that small punishments should be given to the students to make them level and discipline them. If you don't do your homework, if you make noise in the classroom, if you don't obey, you will get beaten up. But now the idea that students should not be beaten will have a more negative impact on children. Most teachers believe that the classroom should be child-friendly. However, activities such as not encouraging, not responding, and discouraging the students for their extracurricular activities in the class can have a negative effect on the student's mentality. Not only that, because stressed teachers cannot teach well, students also cannot learn well.

If the teacher himself is depressed or sad, can he cover it up and teach the students properly?

If the teacher himself is sad, he cannot cover it up. Even if they want to, they cannot teach the students properly. No matter how much the teacher tries to hide his indifference, it can be seen in his behavior.

What kind of mental problems can teachers have?

Depression, anxiety and stress are the most common psychological problems among teachers. Some teachers are not even able to experience that they have mental problems. But in their behavior, the symptoms of mental problems are visible and if the problem becomes dominant, the behavior may change. After which students and colleagues around can also notice.

How to make the teacher mentally healthy and emotionally strong?

In order to make them mentally healthy and emotionally strong, their stress can be reduced by giving them the wages that schools and colleges deserve, understanding the problems of teachers from time to time, not giving them unnecessary pressure from the administration, encouraging them when they have done a good job.

Also, it is important for the teacher to have a discussion program with the counselor at school from time to time, so that they can openly discuss the mental stress they have.

It is necessary for the government to conduct mental health awareness programs in all teaching areas and to train teachers on modern education. This can increase the intellectual capacity of the teachers and can also increase their passion for teaching.

Wednesday, September 6, 2023

From fruit to coffee, these foods are best not to eat during pregnancy

From fruit to coffee, these foods are best not to eat during pregnancy

During pregnancy, some people have a craving for sweet foods. Some people like to eat sweet and sour, some like sweet. At this time, the brain produces neuropeptide hormones, which work to stimulate hunger.

According to the geography, their choice will be different. Generally, women in western countries like sweet foods like ice cream and cakes. Women in eastern countries like sour, bitter and bitter foods like spicy, turkey.

However, eating fancy foods during pregnancy is not so appropriate.

Because the mother's diet has a direct effect on the child growing in the womb. Therefore, you should be careful about what you eat or what you don't eat at this time.

1. fruit

Fruits should not be eaten during pregnancy. Nuts contain 'benzyl isothiocyanate', due to which excessive consumption can be toxic to the body.

In this case, if a pregnant woman eats the fruit, there may be a risk of miscarriage. Even raw fruit should not be eaten during pregnancy. Enzyme found in raw fruit helps in uterine contraction. Because of this, there is a higher risk of miscarriage.

2. Smoking and drinking

Smoking and drinking alcohol during pregnancy can be a risk for the baby. The chemicals in cigarettes shrink the blood vessels in the uterus, which can cause the baby to be underweight in the womb, cause labor pains before the due date, and hinder the development of the penis.

Drinking alcohol can be even more dangerous. It can lead to mutilation of the body in the womb.

3. Caffeinated foods

Most people prefer to drink coffee, but pregnant women are advised to consume less caffeine. According to health experts, pregnant women should consume less than 200 milligrams of caffeine per day.

Caffeine dissolves quickly in the body and reaches the umbilical cord. A fetus does not have metabolic enzymes due to which it can be harmed. Consuming too much caffeine during pregnancy can hinder the baby's weight and growth.

4. Junk food

During pregnancy, you should eat only foods rich in nutrients for the development of the baby.

You should stay away from junk food during this time. Because junk foods lack nutrients and are high in sugar and calories. Eating junk food leads to nutritional deficiency. Also, weight increases quickly and this can cause many problems during delivery. During pregnancy, your diet should include plenty of fruits, green vegetables, protein, folate and iron.

5. Raw eggs and undercooked meat

There are some meat-based foods like kachela, which are not fully cooked. Such foods should not be eaten during pregnancy.

Most of the bacteria are found on the surface of the meat while some are found inside the meat. Therefore, eating raw or undercooked meats is also harmful for pregnant women. Its consumption can cause neurological diseases in the unborn child by infecting many types of bacteria such as Toxoplasma, Listeria and Salmonella.

Similarly, some people also eat raw eggs saying that they are more nutritious. Raw eggs have more nutrients than cooked eggs. However, it is better not to eat raw eggs during pregnancy. Because raw eggs contain salmonella bacteria. Which can cause fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. In some cases, this infection can cause uterine cramps, which can lead to premature birth.

Do dogs really keep people away from depression?

Do dogs really keep people away from depression?

During the lockdown caused by the Corona pandemic, Kul Prasad Baral bought a golden retriever puppy and brought it to his home. He was not fond of dogs and had no affection for them. However, he says that after the school was closed, he brought a puppy to his granddaughter, who was locked inside the room, as a 'friend'.

"When she was alone, she didn't have a friend to play with, she started hanging around on her mobile around the clock," said Baral, who has a permanent home in Jhapa, "that's why we brought a puppy to play with."

Niroj Dangal, an animal technician at Pet House in Radheradhe, Bhaktapur, says that during the lockdown, the sale of puppies increased rapidly.

In the past, some people used to keep dogs in Lahalhaima or Dukhasekhi. At that time, people did not know what breed of dog to choose, for what purpose to keep it, how to keep it. However, he says that now the number of dog breeders is increasing due to their needs.

"Now a lot of people seem to take dogs home to get rid of loneliness," says Dangal.

A study by the National Alliance of Mental Illness says, 'The presence of a dog keeps people free from depression. Playing with dogs does not make you feel lonely. It helps to keep away from anxiety, stress, depression. At the same time, it keeps the dog physically active as it has to be played and rocked.

Psychologist Dr. We asked this question to Basudev Karki. Can dogs help people to be stress free?

In response, he said, 'A person's loneliness is also a factor behind depression or anxiety. An empty mind is like the devil's house, when you live alone, many things play in your mind. Loneliness can also make people depressed. When a dog or a pet is with you, you don't feel alone. Due to this, one gets rid of depression, stress, anxiety etc.'

According to him, depression is generally divided into 3 stages, normal, moderate and complex. If you have mild or moderate depression, pets like dogs can act as therapy. Because in these two stages, rather than medicine, the patient is kept busy with what he likes. This is called behavioral therapy. Petting a dog is also part of behavioral therapy. It is used to keep people away from happiness and loneliness.

"However, there has been no study in Nepal so far that dogs reduce the risk of depression or prevent depression," psychologist Dr. Karki says, "That's why you can't tell about the relationship between dogs and depression."

A dog can understand the owner's mood

According to a report by the Patient Empowerment Network, dogs can sense their owner's mood. One can guess how happy or sad the owner is by looking at the owner's face or expression. Dogs behave accordingly with their owners.

Like, when the owner has come home happily from somewhere, the dog jumps up and comes to play. If the owner looks sad or worried, the dog slowly approaches and sits with the owner, humming.

The common thread of some studies is that dogs can help reduce everything from depression to anxiety and aggression and other mental health problems.

How does a dog keep away from depression?

Veterinary Dr. According to Pranav Joshi, a dog is an animal that likes and wants to mingle easily with people. Dogs always want to be close to people. Prefers to play with people. Being a sociable animal, dogs do not let people feel lonely.

Also, dogs play a helpful role in keeping people alert, active and mentally busy. There are four reasons why dogs keep people away from depression. Joshi points.

First: After getting a dog, it needs to be fed, groomed, and walked around. Because of the dog, some people go out to the park, go out for a walk outside the house. It keeps people active as they have to walk the dog or play outdoors.

Second: The dog does not let you feel lonely. When we are alone at home, the dog keeps drawing our attention in one way or another. Sometimes it calls to play, sometimes it starts looking for food. Sometimes it barks and jumps. This is how dogs keep people busy.

Third: Dogs help to socialize with other strangers. If there is a neighbor or someone else who keeps a dog, they are well known.

Fourth: Often the average lifespan of pets like dogs and cats is 10 to 15 years. At some point, you have to part with the dog you love. It also teaches people to bear the pain of separation and accept death.

According to the report of the National Alliance of Mental Illness, dogs never make their owners feel sad or lonely. They live together and love so that there is no chance of stress or anxiety in the mind. Also, the dog gives a sense of security and closeness that "I am with you even if no one is around".

According to the American Heart Association, there are 5 ways that pets can help with stress and mental health, including reducing work stress, stimulating creativity, keeping you physically and mentally fit, refreshing, and helping to keep you away from loneliness.

Why do dog bites increase in summer?

In summer, dogs become more aggressive and there is also an increase in dog bites to people? In fact, it is not a coincidence. Recently, American scientists have discovered its underlying cause.

A study conducted by Harvard Medical School on more than 70,000 dog bite cases brought out a strange fact. What is seen from this study is that dogs are becoming more violent over time and this trend is sure to increase.

During the study, it has been observed that the rate of dog attacks on people increases on days when there is more heat and dust. According to researchers, when pollution is high, dog attacks increase by 11 percent compared to other days.

According to scientists, climate change and global warming are increasing due to human causes and its effect is also affecting the mood of dogs.

This research has been published on June 15 in Scientific Reports of the journal Nature. The study was conducted for 10 years in 8 major US cities. What it clearly shows is that the winter season is very hot and the days when the amount of dust and smoke increases, the aggressiveness of the dog also seems to increase.

According to research, dog bites increase by 11 percent when exposure to UV rays increases. In summer, it increases by another 4 percent, while the fear of dog bites increases by another 3 percent on days with increased ozone levels.

Similarly, it has been observed that dog bites increase by 1 percent even when there is heavy rain.

Effects of heat on humans too

What some studies have shown is that there is a direct relationship between crime incidents and high temperatures, i.e. hot weather.

Amsterdam-based Vrij University conducted a study on the subject, the results of which were published in the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences. It analyzed the relationship between climate, human aggression and self-control.

According to researchers, the climate in which people live plays a role in controlling or provoking their anger. People become more aggressive and crime rates increase in hot weather, which decreases in cooler areas.

Recent studies have shown that this trend in humans also applies to dogs.

4 things to keep in mind when taking your dog outside for a walk

Not everyone keeps a dog at home only in Dekhasiki or Lahad. Some people keep it for the security of the house, while others keep the dog with them to make the family atmosphere fun. To avoid loneliness, the tribe of dog breeders is growing.

After keeping a dog at home, it is not only necessary to feed him properly, but also to give him time. Many breeds of dogs are very energetic and need to be taken outside regularly. The problem is that we do not have a separate park for dogs.

Chowk, street, roadside or any open place should be used. In such a situation, there is a situation where local people and neighbors have to abuse. Because they defecate and urinate on random dogs, bark and bark at cats, and eat whatever they find on the road.

Therefore, before taking your pet dog outside for a walk, you should take care of a few things.

1. Carry a fold picker

When taking the dog outside, care should be taken about how to manage and dispose of the feces. When going outside, you should make it a habit to defecate and urinate in a certain place. Also, you should carry a potty picker (faeces picker) with you. In this way, the faeces should be kept in polythene and disposed of properly.

2. Lead with a rope

Pet dogs can run wild when they are let out. While running in this way, it can attack people and fight with other dogs. So if possible wear a rope (harness and leash) and walk with you.

3. Learn to walk with yourself

A dog is taught the same behavior at a young age. You can get into the habit of walking with yourself while swinging outside. Especially it is best to make a habit of walking on a rope. While walking in this way, the dog may pull the rope and try to run around. But if they are taught to walk with you from a young age, they will not pull the rope, they will walk straight.

4. Get vaccinated

Dogs may bite others for some reason while walking outside. Or can fight with street dogs. At such times, there is a fear of spreading and spreading an infection like rabies. Therefore, certain vaccinations should be given to the dog at an early age. It should be taken out of the house only after giving such a vaccine.

Do you have to take all the dogs outside for a walk?

Generally there are two types of dogs, big and small. There are large breeds like Siberian Husky, German Shepherd, Cocker Spaniel, Golden Retriever, Dalmation. They must be taken outside the house for half to an hour a day. Such dogs should be allowed to run, play and exercise outside the house or in the open.

It is not enough to keep such dogs indoors and exercise them. Because they need exercise according to their body structure, they have to play in open spaces.

However, small breed dogs such as Shiba Inu, Beagle, Pug, Dudal, Golden Retriever, Spania, Japanese Spitz are only allowed to play indoors and let them run around the floor. It is not necessary to bring them outside.

Similarly, if the dog is sick, diseased or has a lack of glucose in the body, it should be taken for a walk only with the advice of a veterinarian. Only healthy dogs are allowed to walk outside.

What kind of place to take?

In foreign countries, there is a separate pet park, but in Nepal there is no provision for it. Therefore, to walk the dog, you should choose a large open square, a garden or a place that does not disturb others.

If you take it for a walk in a crowded or crowded place, there is a possibility that the dog will be angry with the person, and the person will be angry with the dog. That's why it is considered suitable for them to be petted in a quiet place with less human traffic, less community dog pressure, and less children. It is also effective to take your dog to a place where there is no stress.

Monday, September 4, 2023

Sociology - Caste and Class - Nepal

Sociology - Caste and Class - Nepal

Information about the concepts of caste and class in the context of Nepal.

**Caste in Nepal:**

Caste has played a significant role in the social structure of Nepal for centuries. The caste system in Nepal is deeply rooted in Hindu traditions and divides society into hierarchical groups, often referred to as "jatis" or "varnas." Each caste has traditionally been associated with specific occupations and social roles. The caste system has historically determined social interactions, marriage alliances, and access to resources and opportunities.

The caste system in Nepal was officially abolished in 1963, but its influence still lingers in various aspects of Nepali society. Discrimination, untouchability practices, and restricted social mobility continue to be challenges. Dalits (formerly known as "untouchables") have been the most marginalized group within the caste system, facing systemic discrimination and exclusion.

**Class in Nepal:**

While caste has been a significant factor in the social structure, class distinctions based on economic factors have also been influential in Nepal. The country's economy is primarily agrarian, with a majority of the population engaged in subsistence agriculture. This has led to an uneven distribution of wealth and resources, contributing to socioeconomic disparities.

Urbanization and economic changes in recent years have led to the emergence of a growing urban middle class and an increasingly interconnected economy. However, class divisions often intersect with caste divisions, as historically disadvantaged castes have had limited access to education and economic opportunities, which can perpetuate economic inequality.

**Interplay between Caste and Class:**

The interplay between caste and class in Nepal is complex. While efforts have been made to address caste-based discrimination and promote social inclusion, structural inequalities persist. Disadvantaged castes often face barriers to accessing education, healthcare, and employment opportunities, which in turn affects their economic mobility.

Political and policy initiatives have been launched to address these inequalities, including affirmative action programs and reservations in government jobs and educational institutions for marginalized groups. However, the effectiveness of these measures has been debated, and the process of social change is gradual.

It's important to note that Nepal is a diverse country with various ethnic groups, languages, and cultural practices. The experiences of caste and class can vary across different regions and communities.

The Book "Homo Hierarchicus" was the Brahminical view of caste (Berreman, 1991), Discuss.

"Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and its Implications" is a book written by Louis Dumont, not Berreman, published in 1966. It is an influential work that examines the caste system in India, particularly from the perspective of Brahminical ideology. While Berreman is also a notable scholar who has written about caste and related topics, it's important to correctly attribute "Homo Hierarchicus" to Louis Dumont.

Louis Dumont, a French anthropologist, conducted extensive research on Indian society, particularly focusing on the caste system. "Homo Hierarchicus" presents his analysis of the caste system, emphasizing the ideological foundations and the social hierarchy it establishes. The book explores the worldview of traditional Indian society, with a focus on the Brahminical perspective.

Dumont's key argument revolves around the concept of hierarchy. He suggests that the caste system is not merely a system of social stratification but a complex cultural structure that reflects a particular way of thinking and organizing society. In the Brahminical view presented in the book, Dumont argues that hierarchy is an inherent and fundamental aspect of the Indian social order.

The Brahminical view, as portrayed by Dumont, perceives hierarchy as natural and essential for maintaining order and balance in society. This perspective is rooted in the religious and philosophical beliefs of Hinduism, where each caste is assigned a specific role and duty (dharma) based on their position in the hierarchy. The Brahmin caste is traditionally placed at the top of the hierarchy due to its role in performing religious and intellectual functions.

Dumont's work is notable for its focus on the ideological underpinnings of the caste system rather than just its structural aspects. He delves into the symbolic meanings associated with different castes and the ways in which these meanings are expressed in everyday life, rituals, and social interactions.

While "Homo Hierarchicus" provides valuable insights into the Brahminical perspective on caste, it has also been subject to criticism and debate. Critics argue that Dumont's portrayal might oversimplify the complexity and diversity of the caste system and its historical variations. Additionally, some scholars contend that the book does not adequately address the agency of lower-caste individuals and their resistance to oppressive caste norms.

Overall, "Homo Hierarchicus" remains an influential work in the field of Indian sociology and anthropology, shaping discussions and understandings of the caste system and its cultural implications.

What is the caste hierarchy of Nepal based on muluki Ain of 1854? 

The "Muluki Ain" of 1854, also known as the "Legal Code of Nepal 1854," was a comprehensive legal code enacted by the then ruling Rana regime in Nepal. This legal code included provisions related to various aspects of Nepalese society, including caste hierarchy. The caste hierarchy outlined in the Muluki Ain was largely influenced by Hindu caste-based social norms prevalent at the time. Here is a simplified version of the caste hierarchy based on the Muluki Ain:

1. **Brahmins**: At the top of the hierarchy were the Brahmins, who were traditionally priests and scholars. They were considered the most pure and were responsible for performing religious ceremonies.

2. **Chhetris**: The Chhetri caste was considered second in the hierarchy. They were often associated with martial and administrative roles. They were historically involved in the military and held positions of authority.

3. **Vaishyas**: The Vaishya caste included merchants, traders, and farmers. They were involved in economic activities and were considered below the Brahmins and Chhetris in the social order.

4. **Shudras**: The Shudras were laborers, artisans, and service providers. They were placed below the three higher castes and often had limited social and economic mobility.

5. **Dalits**: The Dalits, often referred to as "untouchables," were at the bottom of the hierarchy. They were assigned tasks considered impure, such as cleaning and handling deceased animals. They faced severe social discrimination and exclusion.

It's important to note that the caste hierarchy outlined in the Muluki Ain was a reflection of the societal norms and power structures prevalent during that time. The Muluki Ain was abolished in the 1950s, following political changes in Nepal, and the country underwent a series of reforms aimed at addressing caste-based discrimination and promoting social equality. Despite these reforms, caste-based inequalities and discrimination have persisted to some extent in Nepalese society.

Additionally, Nepal's transition to a federal democratic republic in the 21st century has led to further changes in the social and political landscape, and discussions around caste and social justice continue to be relevant in the country's ongoing development.

Title: Caste Hierarchy in Nepal According to the Muluki Ain of 1854: Historical Context and Implications

**Page 1: Introduction**

The Muluki Ain of 1854, also known as the Legal Code of Nepal 1854, played a pivotal role in shaping the socio-cultural and legal landscape of Nepal during the Rana regime. One of the key aspects outlined in the Muluki Ain was the hierarchical caste system that reflected the prevailing Hindu social norms of the time. This essay delves into the caste hierarchy as delineated in the Muluki Ain, its historical significance, and its implications for Nepalese society.

**Page 2: Caste Hierarchy in the Muluki Ain**

The Muluki Ain established a rigid caste hierarchy that structured society based on traditional Hindu principles. At the top of the hierarchy were the **Brahmins**, revered for their role as priests and scholars. They held significant influence over religious and intellectual matters. Following the Brahmins were the **Chhetris**, associated with military and administrative roles. The **Vaishyas**, comprising traders and farmers, were the third caste. **Shudras** occupied the fourth tier and performed labor, artisan, and service roles. Lastly, the **Dalits** were positioned at the lowest rung, subjected to extreme social discrimination and relegated to menial tasks.

**Page 3: Historical Context**

The caste hierarchy established by the Muluki Ain reflected the broader societal norms and power dynamics of its time. The Ain codified the existing caste divisions that had their roots in Hindu scriptures and tradition. The privileged status of the Brahmins and Chhetris was reinforced by their roles in religious and administrative domains. The caste hierarchy, therefore, became an instrument of social control and legitimized the prevailing socio-economic disparities.

**Page 4: Implications and Consequences**

The caste hierarchy defined by the Muluki Ain had far-reaching implications for Nepalese society. It reinforced social inequalities by cementing privileges for the higher castes and perpetuating discrimination against the lower castes, especially the Dalits. This discrimination had deep social, economic, and psychological impacts, limiting opportunities for upward mobility and reinforcing intergenerational cycles of disadvantage.

**Page 5: Resistance and Reform**

Over time, the oppressive nature of the caste hierarchy sparked resistance and led to reform movements. Advocates for social justice challenged the discriminatory practices rooted in the Muluki Ain. The movement gained momentum during Nepal's transition to a federal democratic republic. The constitution of 2007 recognized the need to eliminate untouchability and caste-based discrimination, marking a significant departure from the Muluki Ain's provisions.

**Page 6: Contemporary Landscape and Conclusion**

In contemporary Nepal, the remnants of the caste hierarchy from the Muluki Ain era persist, although they have been challenged by reforms and changing societal dynamics. The country's transition to a federal democratic republic and its commitment to social justice and equality are transforming the landscape. While the Muluki Ain's caste hierarchy once rigidly governed society, the complexities of modern Nepal demand more inclusive and egalitarian approaches.

In conclusion, the caste hierarchy established by the Muluki Ain of 1854 in Nepal reflected the hierarchical structure of Hindu social norms at the time. This hierarchy not only defined social positions but also shaped access to opportunities and resources. Understanding the historical context and implications of this hierarchy is crucial for comprehending the challenges and changes in Nepal's socio-cultural landscape. As Nepal continues to evolve, addressing the legacy of the caste system remains an ongoing process that intersects with broader struggles for equality and social justice.

Discuss the Newar caste hierarchy based on Gopal Singh Nepali (1965)?

Gopal Singh Nepali (1911–1963) was a prominent Nepali poet, playwright, and lyricist. While his works often explored a range of themes, including social issues, his writings are not typically associated with an extensive analysis of the Newar caste hierarchy. Therefore, there might be some confusion regarding Gopal Singh Nepali's specific contribution to discussing the Newar caste hierarchy in 1965.

However, I can provide you with a general overview of the Newar caste hierarchy based on traditional social structures prevalent in the Newar community of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Keep in mind that caste hierarchies can be complex and vary across different sources and regions.

**Newar Caste Hierarchy:**

The Newars are the indigenous people of the Kathmandu Valley, with a rich history and unique culture. The Newar society historically operated with a caste-based social hierarchy, although there have been variations in its specifics over time.

1. **Brahmins**: The Newar Brahmins traditionally held a high social status due to their role in performing religious rituals and ceremonies. They were often associated with temples and religious institutions.

2. **Chathariyas/Kshatriyas**: This caste, also known as Chathariyas or Kshatriyas, was historically associated with warrior and administrative roles. They held positions of power and were involved in the governance of the valley.

3. **Vaishyas**: The Vaishya caste comprised traders, merchants, and businesspeople. They played a crucial role in commerce and economic activities in the valley.

4. **Shresthas**: The Shresthas were a diverse group engaged in various professions such as trade, business, and service. They held significant influence in the urban centers of the valley.

5. **Jyapus**: The Jyapus were primarily involved in farming and agriculture. They held an essential role in providing food to the community and were known for their expertise in traditional agricultural practices.

6. **Gubhaju**: The Gubhajus were primarily priests who performed rituals for specific deities. They held a unique position in Newar society due to their religious duties.

7. **Kusundas**: The Kusundas were often marginalized and were traditionally associated with hunting and gathering activities.

8. **Kumhals**: The Kumhals were engaged in pottery and crafting activities, contributing to the artistic and utilitarian needs of the community.

It's important to note that the Newar caste hierarchy was not as strictly stratified as some other caste systems in South Asia. Interactions and intermarriages between castes were not uncommon, and social mobility could occur through various means, such as economic success, education, and inter-caste marriages.

While the traditional caste system still has some influence in Newar communities, social changes and modernization have led to shifts in attitudes and practices. Efforts to promote inclusivity, education, and awareness about social equality have also played a role in challenging the rigidity of the caste system.

If you have specific information from Gopal Singh Nepali's works in 1965 that you would like to discuss, please provide additional details, and I'll do my best to assist you.

Discuss the way of Dipankar Gupta analytically describes social stratification in terms of hierarchy and difference? 

Dipankar Gupta, a prominent Indian sociologist, has contributed significantly to the study of social stratification and inequality. He is known for his analytical approach to understanding the complexities of social hierarchies and differences. In his work, Gupta presents a nuanced perspective on how social stratification operates through both hierarchy and difference. Let's delve into his ideas in more detail:

**1. Hierarchy:**

Gupta emphasizes the role of hierarchy in social stratification. Hierarchy refers to the arrangement of individuals or groups in a vertical order of superiority or inferiority. In this context, certain groups or categories hold more power, resources, and privileges than others. Gupta's analysis of hierarchy highlights how power dynamics are often rooted in social, economic, and political factors. He examines how hierarchies are established, maintained, and legitimized within societies.

**Key Points about Hierarchy:**

- **Power and Control:** Gupta acknowledges that hierarchies are not just about differences in wealth or status; they involve unequal power dynamics where certain groups control resources and institutions.


- **Institutionalization:** He highlights how hierarchies become institutionalized over time, shaping various aspects of life, including education, politics, and the economy.


- **Social Closure:** Gupta discusses the concept of "social closure," where dominant groups restrict access to resources and opportunities to maintain their privileged position.

- **Caste and Class:** Gupta's analysis often draws from India's complex social fabric, where both caste and class hierarchies intersect. He examines how these hierarchies intertwine and influence social interactions.

**2. Difference:**

In addition to hierarchy, Gupta also explores the concept of difference as a component of social stratification. Difference refers to the distinctions and variations that exist between individuals or groups based on various attributes such as ethnicity, gender, religion, and more. Gupta's perspective on difference highlights the ways in which these variations contribute to the social stratification process.

**Key Points about Difference:**

- **Identity and Recognition:** Gupta emphasizes that differences are not inherently negative; they are markers of individual and group identities. These differences often influence how individuals are recognized and treated in society.


- **Intersectionality:** Gupta's analysis recognizes that individuals and groups are not defined by a single attribute but are shaped by a combination of characteristics. Intersectionality, where multiple aspects of identity intersect, plays a role in how individuals experience stratification.


- **Social Exclusion:** Differences can lead to social exclusion when certain groups are marginalized based on their attributes. Gupta explores how social exclusion is perpetuated and the consequences it has on individuals and society.


- **Cultural Significance:** Gupta emphasizes that understanding differences also involves recognizing the cultural significance of various attributes. These cultural dimensions impact how individuals and groups perceive themselves and others.

In summary, Dipankar Gupta's analytical approach to social stratification involves examining both hierarchy and difference. He acknowledges the interconnectedness of these concepts and their impact on power dynamics, social interactions, and the broader functioning of societies. Gupta's work contributes to a deeper understanding of how social inequalities are constructed, maintained, and challenged in diverse contexts.

What do you mean by caste? Discuss the key features of the caste mentioned by G.S. Ghurye? 

Caste refers to a social category or group into which individuals are born, and which typically determines their social status, occupation, and roles within a particular society. The caste system has historically been prevalent in many societies, particularly in South Asia, and has played a significant role in shaping social relationships, roles, and hierarchies.

G.S. Ghurye (1893–1983), an eminent Indian sociologist, extensively studied and wrote about the caste system. He provided a comprehensive analysis of caste and its various features. Here are some key features of the caste system as discussed by G.S. Ghurye:

1. **Ascribed Status:** Caste is an ascribed status, meaning it is determined by birth. Individuals inherit their caste membership from their parents and belong to a particular caste from the moment they are born. This ascribed status creates a fixed social identity that affects every aspect of an individual's life.

2. **Endogamy:** One of the most distinctive features of the caste system is endogamy, which refers to the practice of marrying within one's own caste. Caste endogamy helps preserve the purity and social boundaries of each caste group. Marrying outside one's caste is often discouraged or considered taboo.

3. **Occupational Specialization:** Each caste group historically had specific occupations associated with it. The division of labor based on caste often led to specialized skills and expertise within particular fields. This occupational specialization was seen as contributing to the stability of society.

4. **Hierarchy and Ranking:** Caste groups are hierarchically arranged, with certain castes being considered higher in social status than others. This hierarchy is often justified through religious and cultural narratives. Brahmins, at the top of the hierarchy, were traditionally associated with religious and intellectual pursuits, while lower castes performed manual or menial tasks.

5. **Social Restrictions:** Castes come with social restrictions and rules that govern interactions between different caste groups. Some castes were considered "polluting" and had to maintain physical distance from higher castes. The touch of lower-caste individuals could be considered contaminating to higher-caste individuals.

6. **Ritual Purity and Pollution:** Caste norms often revolve around notions of ritual purity and pollution. Certain activities, such as food habits, occupations, and interactions, were associated with ritual purity or impurity. These norms determined social interactions and relationships.

7. **Social Mobility:** While the caste system is known for its rigidity, social mobility within castes has historically been limited. However, Ghurye recognized that changes over time, including urbanization, education, and economic opportunities, have led to shifts in social mobility patterns.

8. **Regional Variation:** Ghurye highlighted that the caste system exhibits regional variations, with different practices, rankings, and even different caste names existing across various regions of India.

It's important to note that while Ghurye's analysis provides valuable insights into the caste system, there have been debates and critiques regarding his perspectives, especially in the context of modern changes and developments in caste dynamics. The caste system has evolved and adapted over time due to social, economic, and political transformations, and its contemporary manifestations can differ from historical descriptions.

Describe how the caste system is changing in Nepal? 

The caste system in Nepal has been undergoing significant changes over the years due to various social, political, and economic factors. While the traditional caste hierarchy has deeply influenced Nepali society for centuries, recent developments have brought about shifts in attitudes, practices, and policies. Here are some ways in which the caste system is changing in Nepal:

1. **Legal Reforms:** The Nepalese government has taken several steps to address caste-based discrimination and promote social equality. The 2015 Constitution of Nepal explicitly prohibits untouchability and caste-based discrimination. It also recognizes the need for affirmative action and the inclusion of marginalized groups in various sectors.

2. **Reservations and Affirmative Action:** The government has implemented policies such as reservations in educational institutions, government jobs, and political representation for marginalized groups, including Dalits. These policies aim to uplift historically disadvantaged communities and provide them with better opportunities for education and representation.

3. **Educational Attainment:** Access to education has expanded significantly in Nepal, leading to increased awareness and social mobility. Education has played a crucial role in challenging traditional caste-based restrictions and empowering individuals from lower castes to pursue diverse careers.

4. **Urbanization and Migration:** As urbanization and labor migration have increased, caste identities have often become less pronounced in urban areas and among migrants. In cities and foreign countries, people from different castes often interact on a more equal footing, and caste-based practices might be less prominent.

5. **Inter-Caste Marriages:** Inter-caste marriages have become more common, especially among younger generations. This trend challenges the strict endogamy associated with the caste system and contributes to the blurring of caste boundaries.

6. **Changing Social Attitudes:** Modernization, urbanization, and increased exposure to different cultures and ideas have led to changing social attitudes. Many individuals and communities are challenging discriminatory practices and advocating for social justice.

7. **Civil Society and Activism:** Various civil society organizations and activists are working to raise awareness about caste-based discrimination and promote social inclusion. They engage in advocacy, education, and awareness campaigns to address the issues faced by marginalized groups.

8. **Media and Technology:** Media and technology have played a role in disseminating information and challenging discriminatory practices. Social media platforms have provided spaces for discussions on caste-related issues, allowing for greater visibility and solidarity among marginalized communities.

9. **Economic Changes:** Economic changes, including shifts from traditional agrarian livelihoods to diverse economic opportunities, have contributed to changes in social dynamics. Economic success can often transcend traditional caste boundaries.

10. **Political Changes:** The political landscape of Nepal has evolved, with increasing representation of marginalized groups in political parties and leadership roles. This has influenced policy decisions and led to greater recognition of caste-based disparities.

Despite these positive changes, it's important to note that the caste system's influence still persists in many areas of Nepali society, and challenges related to discrimination and social inequality remain. Progress is gradual, and the caste system's complete eradication requires continuous efforts on multiple fronts, including education, policy reforms, and changes in societal attitudes.

**a. Roles of Colonialism in Identification and Production of Indian Tradition (Driks, 2001):**

Colonialism had a profound impact on the identification and production of Indian tradition. Dr. S.N. Driks (2001) discusses how colonial rule influenced the way Indian traditions were understood, constructed, and portrayed. The colonial encounter with India led to the reconfiguration of Indian cultural practices, histories, and identities. 

Key Points:

- **Cultural Appropriation:** Colonial powers often appropriated and manipulated indigenous practices and traditions to suit their own interests. This often involved categorizing and defining various cultural practices in ways that aligned with colonial narratives.

- **Construction of Authenticity:** Colonial rulers sometimes sought to define and legitimize "authentic" Indian traditions, often emphasizing certain cultural aspects while marginalizing others. This process contributed to the shaping of what was considered "Indian tradition."

- **Orientalism:** Orientalist perspectives emerged among colonial scholars, who interpreted Indian culture through a Eurocentric lens. This influenced how Indian traditions were studied, represented, and even commodified.

- **Cultural Hybridity:** The colonial period facilitated cultural interactions between Indians and the colonizers, leading to the emergence of hybrid cultural forms that were influenced by both indigenous and colonial elements.

- **Reinterpretation of History:** Colonialism led to the reinterpretation of Indian history, often emphasizing certain periods or narratives while disregarding others. This influenced how Indians understood their own past and identity.

**b. Dumont's Theory of Caste:**

Louis Dumont's theory of caste is a seminal contribution to the understanding of the caste system in India. Dumont's work, particularly in "Homo Hierarchicus" (1966), highlights the ideological and structural aspects of caste.

Key Points:

- **Hierarchical Nature:** Dumont emphasized that caste is not solely a system of social stratification but also an expression of a hierarchical worldview. Caste is based on principles of hierarchy, where each caste has a specific role and function in the larger social order.

- **Dharma and Ritual Purity:** Dumont highlighted the importance of dharma (duty/righteousness) and ritual purity in shaping the caste system. Each caste's dharma is determined by its position in the hierarchy, with Brahmins at the top performing religious duties and lower castes performing tasks considered less pure.

- **Interdependence:** Dumont argued that the caste system is sustained by an interdependent relationship between castes. Each caste contributes to the overall functioning of society, and their roles are valued differently based on their position in the hierarchy.

- **Holism and Hierarchy:** Dumont saw the caste system as a manifestation of a holistic worldview where everything is interconnected, but at the same time, hierarchy is intrinsic to maintaining order and balance.

**c. Fundamental Dynamics of Inter-Caste Relations in Bisipara Village (Bailey, F.G. 1957):**

F.G. Bailey's study on inter-caste relations in the Bisipara village provides insights into the dynamics of caste interactions in a specific community.

Key Points:

- **Endogamy and Exogamy:** Bailey explored how endogamy (marrying within one's own caste) and exogamy (marrying outside one's caste) influenced social relationships and maintained caste boundaries.

- **Joking Relationships:** Bailey introduced the concept of "joking relationships," where individuals from different castes engage in light-hearted banter. These interactions serve to reduce tension and maintain social harmony.

- **Caste Solidarity and Conflict:** The study illustrated how caste solidarity and cooperation were essential for various community activities, but tensions and conflicts also arose due to differences in caste status and economic disparities.

- **Economic Exchange:** Economic interactions, such as labor exchange and agricultural cooperation, played a role in fostering inter-caste relationships and mitigating conflicts.

**d. Social Inclusion/Exclusion:**

Social inclusion and exclusion refer to the processes through which individuals or groups are either integrated into or marginalized from mainstream social, economic, and political spheres.

Key Points:

- **Social Inclusion:** Inclusion involves providing equal opportunities and rights to all individuals, regardless of their background. It promotes access to education, healthcare, employment, and political participation.

- **Social Exclusion:** Exclusion refers to the marginalization and discrimination faced by certain individuals or groups due to factors such as caste, gender, ethnicity, or economic status. Excluded groups often lack access to resources and opportunities.

- **Intersectionality:** Social exclusion often results from the intersection of multiple identity factors. For example, marginalized groups may face compounded discrimination due to their caste and gender.

- **Policy Interventions:** Governments and organizations often implement policies and initiatives aimed at promoting social inclusion, reducing inequalities, and ensuring equal rights for all members of society.

- **Human Rights Perspective:** Social inclusion is closely linked to human rights principles, emphasizing the importance of dignity, equality, and non-discrimination for all individuals.

In summary, these topics provide insights into the complexities of social structures, cultural dynamics, and the challenges faced by marginalized groups. Understanding these concepts is crucial for comprehending the evolution of societies and the efforts towards creating more equitable and just communities.