Showing posts with label and. Show all posts
Showing posts with label and. Show all posts

Wednesday, July 10, 2024

4 causes and prevention of dry throat or mouth in diabetes

 4 causes and prevention of dry throat or mouth in diabetes

If a person feels dryness in the throat or mouth during diabetes, there may be many reasons behind it. Know about its protection...

When the amount of sugar in the blood starts to increase, that condition is called diabetes. There are mainly two types of diabetes – type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the production of insulin in the body is less than required. While patients suffering from type 2 diabetes cannot fully use insulin. In this condition, insulin is produced but it does not work well. When the level of glucose in the body starts to increase, the body feels extremely tired. Apart from this, the symptoms include weight gain or loss, vomiting, dry mouth, itchy skin, excessive urination, excessive appetite, excessive thirst, rapid healing of wounds, and lack of water in the body. etc. Today we are talking about dry mouth and throat. When a person urinates in excess, he feels thirsty again and again, so the body begins to lack water and he feels dry throat or mouth. Today we will tell you through this article what are the reasons behind dry mouth or throat in diabetes. You will also know the solution. Read more...

Dry mouth or throat in diabetes

1 - Due to diabetes medication

Diabetic patients are sometimes advised to take such medicines, which keep diabetes under control, but their side effects include dry throat or dry mouth.

2 - Due to the condition of the kidneys

Diabetes weakens the body as it ages. In this case, high blood sugar can also cause kidney problems and dry mouth or dry throat can be seen as symptoms.

3 - Due to lack of water

As we have told earlier that a person urinates frequently due to which the person's body may lack water. Thirst also increases in this condition. In this way, he always feels dry mouth or dry throat.

4 - Caused by hyperglycemia

When the blood sugar level increases too much, the condition is called hyperglycemia. As its symptoms, both the throat and the mouth of the person start to dry.

Along with dry mouth and dry throat, some other symptoms such as pain in the mouth, dry tongue, difficulty in eating, difficulty in speaking, difficulty in chewing, blurred vision etc. can be seen in the body of the person.

Prevention of dryness of throat and mouth

If a person's dry throat or dry mouth is caused by any medicine, tell the doctor immediately.

Do not consume excessively spicy or salty food.

Consume water slowly during the day.

If you feel difficulty in swallowing food, drink water during meals.

Do not consume tobacco or alcohol.

Do not consume caffeinated beverages.

Chew sugar-free candy to stimulate saliva production.

Note - The points mentioned above show that dry throat or dry mouth are common symptoms in diabetic patients. But the following reasons may be behind it. In such a case, timely treatment is necessary and if the problem does not go away even after adopting the above-mentioned prevention, then contact the doctor.

Thursday, July 4, 2024

Causes and treatment of vaginal cysts

 Causes and treatment of vaginal cysts

You may have heard of growing meat in the uterus. But do you know that flesh can also grow in the vagina?

The problem of growing flesh in the vagina is called 'vaginal cyst' in medical language. If it is identified early, it can be easily treated. But if there is a delay, the situation can become critical.

What is a vaginal cyst?

A lump filled with fluid in or around the vagina is called a 'vaginal cyst'. It can appear small, large and undetectable. Usually, this problem can be seen during pregnancy, childbirth and after menopause.

the reason

There is not only one reason for this problem. It can be caused by injuries, infections and hormonal changes.

Injury: During delivery, the baby may come out due to surgery or injury to the vaginal wall. This problem can be accidental, which cannot be prevented.

Obstruction in the gland: Due to injury or infection, obstruction of Bartholin's gland causing fluid accumulation in the vagina can lead to swelling. Which in medical language is called Bartholian cyst. Comparatively, this cyst is the most visible.

Infections: Bacteria from sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea and chlamydia can also infect the vagina or around it. Therefore, condoms must be used while having sex.

Congenital: In some, this cyst can be congenital. The concrete reason why it appears has not been discovered.


Symptoms do not show as soon as the flesh grows in the vagina. Which is barely known during the health examination. In some cases, some symptoms appear.

- Growing lumps of flesh around the vagina

- There may be pain and burning while having sex, walking, sitting, defecating, cleaning with tissue paper and using tampons.

- May have fever.


To identify it, look at the shape first. According to the size, it is decided what kind of examination will be done.

In some cases, a biopsy is also done to identify whether it is cancer.

Similarly, the liquid contained in it is examined to identify whether it is a sexually transmitted infection.

If the congenital 'cyst' has increased, MRI is used to see how far the cyst has spread.


If there is a small knot, it can be washed with hot water. If it is due to infection, surgery is done along with the use of some antibiotics.

If the test is suspicious and the size is large, it can be removed by small surgery.

Can it be prevented?

The problem of flesh growing in the vagina cannot be prevented. But if you pay attention to hygiene and have safe physical relations, the risk can be reduced.


If the cyst is due to infection. If not treated in time, the infection from the cyst can spread to the blood.

Apart from that, it can spread through the urinary tract, uterus and stomach. Therefore, if you experience any suspicious lumps, lumps like flesh in the vagina, you should immediately see the relevant doctor.

'I got to see and touch my baby only five days after birth'

I was busy shooting when I found out I was pregnant. The work of the film had already started and there was no way to stop it. So I didn't take a break. The baby was growing in the womb. I was in the rush of filming.

Pregnancy is certainly not easy. Only those who experience it know how physically and emotionally relaxed it is at this time. Vomiting, reluctance to eat or feeling bored. It was more difficult for me. I was working non-stop until I was five months pregnant.

I know that at that moment I need enough rest. Body and mind too. From the time you are pregnant, you have to pay attention to your diet, you have to pay attention to your physical fitness. But I didn't get such facility.

It is not possible to arrange everything as you want in the shooting. You don't get the taste you want, you don't get the ease you choose.

I used to vomit most of the time. That's why I didn't want to eat food. Fruit juice and coconut water were cut for five months.

I listened to bhajans to relax my mind

The state of mind of the mother during pregnancy directly affects the unborn child. What does the mother think, how does she think, what is her feeling, what is her state of mind? Accordingly, it also affects the mental development of the child. That is why it is said to be calm, positive and happy at that moment.

Even in the midst of work, I tried to keep myself calm as much as possible. Listening to bhajans and chanting Om was a regular thing in the morning.

However, I think that I am positive. So I didn't feel like I had to do anything extra to bring positive feelings. I stayed away from unnecessary thoughts. I used to do something to keep myself busy. Like listening to songs, listening to bhajans, spending time with dear friends, eating what you want to eat, watching movies.

"The doctor said - surgery may be necessary"

I think any woman wants to have the experience of becoming a mother, no matter how much pain she goes through. I also wanted to experience labor pains. I had also mentally prepared for a normal delivery.

But the doctor said - 'Surgery may be necessary.'

If this happened, many problems occurred during pregnancy. I had to go to the hospital many times and have to be examined. He had to stay in the hospital two or three times. Before giving birth, I was very tired.

The date of delivery was Baisakh. But we could not wait for the appointed time. We were shocked to hear the doctor's suggestion to give birth prematurely due to various complications.

Parents are as happy as their child is born, they are also afraid. Will my child be perfect or perfect? Is his health okay? Many such things will make the heart hurt. Having to give birth before the scheduled time added more worries to us.

Not being able to see and touch your baby

After excruciating pain, I was admitted to Grand City Hospital, Jamal. Dr. According to Bina Basnet's advice, the process of giving birth to a child by surgery proceeded.

I could not see my child

Mother, this is not only a word but also a feeling. The feeling of being a mother cannot be expressed in words. It is something to feel or feel.

Not only humans, animals also raise their children with love. How much affection and touch they bring up. An animal that has been hungry for how many days feeds a child as soon as it gets some food. They protect their children no matter how dangerous they are. what is mother Similar examples also show.

When the child growing in my womb was being born, I forgot myself at that time. All my affection was showered on my child. I was eager to touch that baby. Give love with all your heart.

But everything is not under your control.

When the unborn baby is placed in the NICU

The baby was underweight. So he was kept in the NICU immediately after birth. I could not calm him down. I really wanted to cry. Even then, the mind will be weak. On top of that, having to keep my baby apart without touching her even once made my heart break.

When the baby comes out of the womb, his organs have to spontaneously adjust to the external environment. But in some cases this may not be the case. In some cases, the baby is kept in the NICU for special care.

I was saddened, even that ignorant child could not touch his mother. He did not get his mother's touch and warmth. I was more pained by the child's pain than by myself. How much pain does a mother feel when she has to keep her baby apart after giving birth?

And I looked at the child as if to die

Only after five days I was able to touch my child to the point of death, to see him.

In childbirth, we often see other people. But that situation is not so easy. If we have one delivery girl, there are many others to teach. Some say to do this, some say not to do this. Some say to eat like this, some say not to eat like this. At that time, people's behavior would also make them feel bored.

On the one hand, the wound was not healed because the child was born through surgery. It hurt there. On the other hand, there was a lack of appetite for food. Mood swings were caused by stress, pain and fatigue. During pregnancy I ate normal vegetarian food. I emphasized more on fruits. Other food was not eaten much.

If you are not strong, it will be difficult to take care of the child accordingly. At first, the baby could not be breastfed. Formula milk had to be given. Later, when the body became stronger, I breastfed.

Oxytocin hormone is said to be released in the body when breastfeeding or touching the baby. Because of this hormone, the love between mother and child is stronger. Oxytocin is called the love hormone.

Be a mother and take a look

In fact, the joy that a mother feels when she hugs, kisses, holds her baby, plays in her arms, can hardly be explained. When you keep a piece of your heart on your chest, your feelings melt like this, tears fall from your eyes. You want to cry, you want to laugh, you want to love. That mixed feeling?

As a mother, she bears the pain of her children

Being a mother, sharing the joys of children

I felt that mother is not the same earth. When I became a mother, I missed my mother a lot. I remember at other times too. The feeling after becoming a mother is different.

After suffering so much pain, a mother lives for her children. When the baby cries, it hurts the mother. A mother's heart is happy when a child laughs. Forget yourself and give love to your child. They are able to give up everything for the child. Everything is bearable.

Monday, June 17, 2024

Causes and treatment of mania

 Causes and treatment of mania

Mental and physical hyperactivity, disordered behavior and excessive increase in thinking is mania or frenzy. It is a type of mental illness, which is classified under anxiety and depression. After getting this disease, a person's feelings and emotions change abnormally and the person's behavior, thinking, sleep and social interactions start to look unbalanced.

Depression is despair, while mania is the opposite of excitement and happiness. In this disease, people like to be happy, laugh, talk a lot, dance and sing songs for no reason. Similarly, symptoms such as sudden anger, impatience and increased sexual desire also appear. This happens in all people, like mood swings or excessive liking. If it does not have any negative impact on daily life, it can be taken as normal, but if it has affected personal and professional life for at least 6 months, then it is considered as mental illness.

Symptoms seen in mania

- Frequent high self-esteem and ambitious thinking, but not working hard to achieve goals

- Sudden impulse

- Being abnormal in sexual behavior

- I have such thoughts and ideas that I either do not sleep or do not sleep much

- Talking abnormally (slurring)

- Playing a lot of things in the mind

- Being impatient, talking big but unable to do anything in essence. If due to depression i.e. mania bipolar, a person can reach severe mental illness (psychotic). Therefore, it is necessary to treat it on time.

How is mania?

It is caused by biological, genetic and psychosocial reasons.

Biological causes: Biological causes include imbalanced neurotransmitter chemistry in the brain. It appears that mania occurs when there is a problem in the hypothalamus of the brain. It is also called the center of satisfaction. When there is a disturbance in it, one cannot be satisfied and at this time the dopamine neurotransmitter is released in the brain, while the level of serotonin is low, which makes one want to do the same thing again and again and enjoy it. Even if someone in the family has a history of mania, other members of that family are at risk of developing mania.

Psychosocial cause: People with bipolar tend to get this disease. Similarly, people with seasonal mood disorders, people with dementia, sudden death of a close relative, passing away, physical and mental trauma, brain injury can get this disease.

Types of mania

There are many types of mania, among which hypomania, delusional mania and delusional mania are the main ones. Hypomania: This is a condition where the person seems to adjust their daily and professional routines. In this situation, a person may feel that something has changed in his thinking and behavior.

Delirious Mania: In this condition, the person looks very ambivalent. In this case, immediate treatment is needed.

Delusional Mania: In this condition, the person is very delusional. As a result, his social relationships deteriorate one after the other, problems arise in family and marital relationships, if something is shown to be wrong, he gets angry if it is not true, does not accept and does not scare others by saying that 'only I have extraordinary abilities', stays in his own world. .


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is used to treat mania. It helps to control the patient's depression and excitement. Similarly, in some cases, self-care and family medicine should also be adopted.

Who is at risk?

This mental problem can start at any stage and age. This problem is especially common among people aged 15 to 25 years. The problem of mania is very visible in teenagers.

Will it heal completely?

If it is normal type of mania, it will be cured within 6 months to 3 years. But there is also the possibility of returning again. The disease can be prevented by taking into account the person, his environment (family, profession), but if there is any disharmony, there is a possibility of reoccurrence.

Mental Health: 11 Myths and Truths

Many misconceptions about mental health have been around for centuries. Some associate it with the effects of ghosts and ghosts or the fruits of previous births, while others call mental illness insanity.

What this situation shows is that people are not so aware of the problems related to mental health. For this reason, many people do not like to tell anyone about their health problems such as stress or depression. Instead, they keep it hidden.

What are the illusions?

Myth: People with mental health problems are mentally weak and cannot work.

- Having problems with mental health does not mean that a person's intellectual ability decreases or that he has a dull intellect. Having a mental problem does not mean that a person cannot make his place in society. The reality of this is that even if a particular person has some kind of mental health problem, he can lead a normal life.

Until this problem becomes serious, daily and family life can be easily lived.

Delusion: Mental illness is seen only in certain people.

- This is also not true. Studies on mental health have concluded that one in five people may experience mental illness at some point in their lives.

So it seems that anyone can have mental health problems in one way or another.

Delusion: Mental problems cannot be cured once they are seen.

- Mental problems can appear in different ways depending on the person. One is that mental problems are not caused by one cause and one disease. Mental problems have stages. Which may return to normal with time.

In most cases, drug treatment, various types of therapy can be cured or controlled.

Misconception: People with mental problems will be cured by behavior after marriage.

Truth: This is a misunderstanding. Brain-related problems can be treated with a skilled doctor, proper medication and a positive environment.

If he gets married after leaving the treatment, not only his condition but also that of his spouse may deteriorate.

Myth: All people with mental problems are violent and aggressive.

- There is no complete truth in this statement. People with mental health problems are themselves at risk of violence and assault.

According to the data of the World Health Organization, 9 out of every 10 people with mental problems are victims of human rights violations in one way or another.

They have as much anger as a healthy person. But in some serious cases, if there is no treatment or there is an imbalance in the amount of medicine being used, they may sometimes appear like Hrinsak.

Myth: Children and adolescents do not have mental health problems.

- More than 50 percent of mental health problems begin before the age of 14. Childhood abuse, poverty, accidents, bullying, sexual abuse, domestic strife, trauma after someone's untimely death in the family, etc. can be the causes of mental problems in children.

WHO has also stated that 1 in every 5 children and adolescents have some kind of mental health problem.

Myth: Mental health problems are caused by personal weaknesses.

- Mental health problems can develop due to biological, environmental, social and psychological reasons.

Therefore, it cannot be said that the problem is caused by a person's personal weakness or lack of self-strength.

Myth: People with mental health problems cannot be helped.

- If you can provide emotional support to people with mental problems, their health will gradually improve. The more they live alone, the more they are at risk of negative thoughts.

Therefore, sitting with them and listening carefully to what they want to express can help such a person a lot.

It seems that people with mental problems are called crazy in the society, which is wrong. It is everyone's duty to respect them and protect them as much as possible.

Illusion: Being mentally ill, they pretend to get attention from others.

- In diseases like mental illnesses, anxiety and 'bio polar disorder', behaviors such as trembling, crying, and convulsions can be seen. In such a situation, some may perceive it as a witch or a deity or pretending to attract the attention of others, which is wrong. These are symptoms of mental problems. The identification and successful treatment of which can lead to proper management.

Delusion: People with mental problems have low will power.

- In our society, there is a misconception that only people with low willpower can suffer from mental illness or that people with mental problems do not have willpower. But this is not true, because mental illness affects the mind and not the strength of the person.

Misconception: As soon as you have a mental illness, you should be admitted to a mental hospital.

- It is not necessary to be hospitalized as soon as a mental illness occurs. In some cases, they need to go to the hospital for treatment and follow-up. But you don't have to stay in the hospital for a long time.

Their successful treatment is more important than how well the family members are able to care for them.

Monday, March 4, 2024

How to make sex life easier for people with high blood pressure and heart disease?

 How to make sex life easier for people with high blood pressure and heart disease?

Sex is a natural need. However, many people with heart problems may have a question - doesn't sexual activity put the heart at greater risk?

It is natural to have this dilemma. Because as much as other health problems are openly discussed, not so much is discussed about sex. Patients do not openly ask questions about this due to hesitation with doctors. So that it may be affecting the sex life directly and indirectly.

Does having heart problems affect your sex life?

Factors such as physical and mental condition, appropriate person and environment can make a difference in the outcome of sex. But sex is a basic need and it is not considered a taboo subject even in any disease.

It is considered safe to have sex even in people with heart problems. According to a journal published in the Johns Hopkins Medicine Organization, cohabitation is considered safe for people with heart and high blood pressure who have no problem climbing stairs, walking and running for some distance. If there are no symptoms, there is no objection to intercourse.

But during the extreme stimulation of sexual intercourse, heart rate increases and blood pressure also increases, so the heart may be under more pressure. For this reason, it is necessary to take some precautions in people with heart artery disease. But it is not necessary to stay away from sexual contact.

If the chest becomes heavy during normal swaying or climbing stairs, there may be some risk of heart attack during sexual intercourse. In such a case, after examining a cardiologist, proper treatment can be given and sexual activity can be done after consulting about precautionary measures.

Post-heart attack condition

It is not good to do too much physical activity for the first two weeks after a heart attack. After that, when the chest is not heavy while swinging and it is easy to do moderate physical activity, then it is possible to have sex. But the condition of being able to have sex and not being able to have sex may differ from person to person.

How to facilitate sex life after a heart attack?

- Husband and wife should talk about their interests and situation without keeping any distance between them.

- A healthy person between husband and wife should help each other by understanding each other's situation.

- Do not have sex immediately after eating.

- Fear should be removed from the mind. Sometimes you can't enjoy sex if you are afraid of having heart problems during intercourse.

- If the chest becomes heavy during intercourse, it may be necessary to stop the activity immediately and take medicine of the "nitrate" group. What the doctor may have said during the consultation.

- If you feel uncomfortable, you should consult a doctor.

Effects of sex on hypertension and cardiovascular disease

In people with high blood pressure and heart disease, the interest in sex is low and the male sex is not stimulated, it takes more time to get excited, and the excitement may not last for a long time. Women may also experience less interest and vaginal dryness and more pain.

the reason

Just as fatty substances accumulate in the blood vessels of the heart and brain and become narrowed, the blood vessels of the penis and vagina also become narrowed when the blood pressure increases. And, the blood flow decreases, which can decrease sexual interest in both.

Sometimes, heart and high blood pressure patients think they are weak without any reason and weaken their self-esteem, so they don't show priority in sex and cannot get full satisfaction. A condition that requires psychological counseling.

Similarly, some medicines related to heart and high blood pressure also affect sexual function. Medicines of the 'thiazide' and 'beta blocker' group used for high blood pressure can reduce sexual interest, lack of extreme pleasure, and decrease in sexual stimulation.

Studies have shown that about 10 percent of young and old people taking these drugs have this effect. Similarly, drugs such as digoxin and sparonolactone, which are used for heart disease, can also reduce sexual desire and cause pain and swelling in men's breasts.

Those with heart rhythm problems may also experience lack of sexual desire and sexual satisfaction. In addition, sexual desire can decrease in diseases such as high blood pressure, various hormone-related conditions, kidney disease, and long-standing uncontrolled diabetes.

What is the solution?

Medicines such as Viagra can be taken to increase sexual arousal. But before taking this medicine, you should consult a doctor.

Alternative medicines can be used on the advice of a doctor, depending on the age and condition of the person, instead of the drugs of the 'thiazide' and 'beta blocker' group used for high blood pressure and the drugs like 'digoxin' and 'sparonolactone' used for heart disease.

Taking Viagra can be fatal for people who are taking drugs from the 'nitrate' group. Apart from that, people with very high or low blood pressure, recent heart attack patients, kidney and liver diseases should not take Viagra.

Sunday, January 21, 2024

What is mode of production. Compare and contrast economic features of feudal and capitalist mode of production.

 What is mode of production. Compare and contrast economic features of feudal and capitalist mode of production.

**Mode of Production:**

The mode of production refers to the way in which a society organizes and carries out economic activities, including how goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed. It involves the relationships between the means of production (such as land, labor, and capital) and the social relations of production (such as the organization of labor and the distribution of resources). Marx identified different historical modes of production, each characterized by distinct economic structures and class relations.

**Feudal Mode of Production:**

1. **Economic Structure:**

   - Land is the primary means of production in feudalism. The feudal lord owns the land and grants portions to vassals (nobles) in exchange for loyalty and services.

   - Agricultural production is central, and the majority of the population works as peasants on the lord's land.

2. **Class Relations:**

   - Feudal society is characterized by a hierarchical structure. The king or monarch is at the top, followed by nobles and vassals, with peasants forming the majority.

   - Serfs, tied to the land, provide labor in exchange for protection from the lord.

3. **Surplus Extraction:**

   - Surplus extraction occurs primarily through direct control of land. Lords extract surplus through a portion of the agricultural produce produced by peasants.

4. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - The feudal system is static, with limited social mobility. Social status and economic roles are largely determined by birth.

**Capitalist Mode of Production:**

1. **Economic Structure:**

   - Capitalism is characterized by private ownership of the means of production, such as land and factories.

   - Wage labor becomes a central feature, with workers selling their labor power to capitalists (owners) in exchange for wages.

2. **Class Relations:**

   - Capitalist society is marked by a class division between the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) and the proletariat (working class).

   - The bourgeoisie owns the means of production, while the proletariat sells their labor to survive.

3. **Surplus Extraction:**

   - Surplus extraction occurs through the production process. Capitalists accumulate surplus value by paying workers less than the value produced by their labor.

4. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - Capitalism is characterized by dynamic economic growth, technological advancements, and constant innovation.

   - Social mobility is theoretically possible, as individuals can accumulate wealth and change their class position.


1. **Ownership of Means of Production:**

   - Feudalism: Means of production, especially land, are owned by the feudal lords.

   - Capitalism: Means of production, including land and factories, are privately owned by individuals or corporations.

2. **Labor Relations:**

   - Feudalism: Serfs provide labor in exchange for protection, and there is limited mobility.

   - Capitalism: Workers sell their labor power for wages, and social mobility is theoretically possible.

3. **Role of Surplus Extraction:**

   - Feudalism: Surplus extraction is mainly through control of land and agricultural produce.

   - Capitalism: Surplus extraction occurs within the production process through wage labor.

4. **Social Mobility:**

   - Feudalism: Social mobility is restricted, and social roles are often determined by birth.

   - Capitalism: Social mobility is theoretically possible, allowing for the accumulation of wealth and change in class position.

5. **Economic Dynamics:**

   - Feudalism: Economic activity is relatively static, with limited technological progress.

   - Capitalism: Dynamic economic growth, technological innovation, and constant change characterize capitalist economies.

In summary, the feudal and capitalist modes of production represent distinct economic structures with different ownership relations, labor dynamics, and mechanisms of surplus extraction. The transition from feudalism to capitalism marked a significant shift in societal organization and economic relations.

Class and class struggle.

In the context of Marxist theory, a class is a social group characterized by its relationship to the means of production. The two primary classes in capitalist societies, as identified by Karl Marx, are the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

- **Bourgeoisie:** The capitalist class, or owners of the means of production (factories, land, resources). They derive profit from the labor of the proletariat.

- **Proletariat:** The working class, those who sell their labor power to the bourgeoisie. They do not own the means of production and are dependent on wages for their livelihood.

**Class Struggle:**
Class struggle refers to the ongoing conflict and tension between social classes, particularly between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Marx argued that this struggle is intrinsic to capitalist societies and is rooted in the fundamental economic relations of production.

- **Nature of Class Struggle:**
  - **Economic Exploitation:** The primary source of class struggle is the exploitation of the proletariat by the bourgeoisie. The capitalist system relies on extracting surplus value from the labor of workers.

  - **Conflicts of Interest:** The interests of the bourgeoisie and proletariat are inherently conflicting. While the bourgeoisie seeks to maximize profits, the proletariat aims to improve working conditions, wages, and gain control over their labor.

- **Forms of Class Struggle:**
  - **Economic Strikes:** Workers may engage in strikes to demand better wages, improved working conditions, or protest against unfair labor practices.

  - **Political Movements:** Class struggle can manifest in political movements advocating for workers' rights, social equality, and sometimes revolutionary change.

  - **Unionization:** Formation of labor unions is a way for the proletariat to collectively negotiate with the bourgeoisie for better terms of employment.

- **Historical Materialism:**
  - Marx's historical materialism asserts that the dynamics of class struggle drive historical change. Transitions from one mode of production to another (e.g., feudalism to capitalism) are propelled by class conflicts.

- **Role of Class Consciousness:**
  - Class consciousness refers to the awareness among the proletariat of their common interests and collective identity. Marx argued that the development of class consciousness is crucial for effective class struggle.

**Critiques and Developments:**
- Some critics argue that the modern working class may not align precisely with Marx's industrial proletariat, leading to challenges in applying traditional Marxist class analysis.
- Contemporary Marxist scholars explore intersections of class with other social categories, such as race and gender, acknowledging the complexities of identity and inequality.

In summary, class and class struggle are foundational concepts in Marxist theory, providing a lens to understand the dynamics of power, exploitation, and societal change within capitalist systems.

Historical marerialism.

**Historical Materialism:**

Historical materialism is a key concept in Marxist theory developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. It is a methodological approach to understanding societal development and change, emphasizing the role of material conditions in shaping historical processes. The central tenets of historical materialism include:

1. **Primacy of Material Conditions:**
   - Historical materialism posits that the material or economic structure of a society—specifically, the mode of production—forms the foundation upon which all other social, political, and cultural structures are built.

2. **Modes of Production:**
   - Societies are characterized by distinct modes of production, each with its specific relations of production and means of production. Marx identified historical epochs, such as feudalism, capitalism, and socialism, as different modes of production.

3. **Dialectical Change:**
   - Historical materialism employs a dialectical approach, drawing inspiration from Hegelian dialectics. It sees historical development as a process involving contradictions, conflicts, and transformations. Changes in material conditions lead to social conflicts and, eventually, new social structures.

4. **Class Struggle:**
   - Class struggle is a central dynamic in historical materialism. Changes in the mode of production often arise from conflicts between social classes. For example, the transition from feudalism to capitalism is characterized by the struggle between feudal lords and emerging capitalist classes.

5. **Base and Superstructure:**
   - The economic base, encompassing the relations and means of production, influences the superstructure, which includes cultural, legal, political, and ideological institutions. Changes in the base drive changes in the superstructure.

6. **Revolutionary Change:**
   - Historical materialism suggests that significant societal transformations often require revolutionary change, particularly changes in the mode of production. For Marx, the transition from capitalism to socialism would involve a proletarian revolution.

7. **Human Agency and Consciousness:**
   - While material conditions shape societal structures, historical materialism recognizes the role of human agency. People act within the constraints of their material conditions but can also influence and transform those conditions. Class consciousness, or awareness of one's social class and interests, is crucial for social change.

**Application to History:**

1. **Feudalism to Capitalism:**
   - Marx applied historical materialism to explain the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Changes in agricultural technology, property relations, and the rise of merchant capitalism played pivotal roles in this historical process.

2. **Capitalism to Socialism:**
   - Marx envisioned the proletarian revolution as the next stage in historical development, leading to the establishment of socialism. The transition involves the collective ownership of the means of production and the abolition of class distinctions.

3. **Global Application:**
   - Historical materialism has been used to analyze the development of various societies worldwide, accounting for differences in historical trajectories based on economic structures.

**Critiques and Developments:**

1. **Non-economic Factors:**
   - Critics argue that historical materialism may oversimplify complex historical processes by reducing them solely to economic factors, neglecting the influence of culture, ideas, and non-material forces.

2. **Intersectionality:**
   - Contemporary scholars have expanded historical materialism to consider intersections with race, gender, and other social categories, recognizing that class is just one dimension of social hierarchy.

3. **Adaptability:**
   - Some argue that historical materialism is adaptable and can be applied to understand various forms of societal development beyond the classic capitalist framework.

Historical materialism remains a foundational concept in Marxist thought, providing a framework for analyzing the historical development of societies and the interconnectedness of economic, social, and political structures.

Marxist notion of consciousness.

The Marxist notion of consciousness is a critical aspect of Karl Marx's philosophical and sociological framework. In Marxist theory, consciousness refers to the awareness, beliefs, and ideas that individuals hold about themselves, society, and their position within the social structure. Key components of the Marxist notion of consciousness include:

1. **Base and Superstructure:**
   - Marx proposed the concept of the base and superstructure to explain the relationship between the economic structure of society (base) and the cultural, political, and ideological elements (superstructure). Consciousness is seen as part of the superstructure and is influenced by the underlying economic conditions.

2. **False Consciousness:**
   - Marx introduced the concept of false consciousness to describe a situation where individuals hold beliefs and ideas that are contrary to their own class interests. This occurs when the dominant ideas in society, often shaped by the ruling class, mislead individuals into accepting and supporting the existing social order.

3. **Class Consciousness:**
   - Class consciousness is a crucial concept in Marxist theory. It refers to the awareness that individuals have of their membership in a particular social class and their understanding of the shared interests and goals of that class. For the proletariat, developing class consciousness is seen as a precursor to revolutionary action.

4. **Ideological State Apparatuses:**
   - Louis Althusser, influenced by Marxist thought, introduced the concept of Ideological State Apparatuses (ISAs). These are institutions like schools, media, and religious organizations that disseminate ideological messages reinforcing the existing social order. They play a role in shaping and maintaining the consciousness of individuals.

5. **Role in Social Change:**
   - Marx believed that changes in the economic base of society would eventually lead to changes in consciousness. As the material conditions of production change, individuals' awareness and understanding of their place in society are expected to evolve, potentially leading to shifts in political and social structures.

6. **Revolutionary Consciousness:**
   - Marx envisioned a process where the proletariat, through developing class consciousness, would achieve revolutionary consciousness. This involves an understanding of the need to overthrow the existing capitalist system and replace it with a socialist or communist society.

7. **Materialism and Consciousness:**
   - Central to Marxist philosophy is historical materialism, emphasizing the material conditions of society as the driving force behind historical development. Consciousness, according to Marx, is rooted in these material conditions, and changes in the mode of production can influence ideological shifts.

8. **Critique of Religion:**
   - Marx famously described religion as the "opium of the people," suggesting that religious beliefs often serve to mask the harsh realities of class-based exploitation. He argued that changes in economic conditions would lead to a transformation in religious and ideological consciousness.

In summary, the Marxist notion of consciousness is intricately linked to the social and economic structures of a given society. It encompasses ideas of false consciousness, class consciousness, and the potential for revolutionary transformation based on shifts in material conditions and individuals' awareness of their social roles.

Friday, December 22, 2023

The Sociology of Markets. Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter.

 The Sociology of Markets.
Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter.

The Sociology of Markets, as explored by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter, delves into the intricate web of social relationships and structures that underlie market dynamics. This theoretical framework offers a profound understanding of how markets operate not merely as economic entities but as social institutions shaped by human interactions, cultural norms, and institutional arrangements.

One key aspect emphasized by Fligstein and Dauter is the concept of "socially embedded markets." They argue that markets are not detached from society but are deeply embedded within social structures. In their seminal work, the sociologists highlight how relationships, trust, and social networks play a pivotal role in shaping market outcomes. This perspective challenges traditional economic theories that often treat markets as purely rational and efficient entities divorced from social context.

Furthermore, Fligstein and Dauter introduce the notion of "strategic action fields" to explain the ongoing struggles and negotiations within markets. According to this concept, various actors, including firms, regulatory bodies, and consumers, engage in strategic actions to advance their interests. The authors argue that understanding these action fields is crucial for understanding market dynamics, as it sheds light on the power relations, alliances, and conflicts that define market structures.

In their analysis, Fligstein and Dauter also highlight the role of institutions in shaping market behavior. Institutions, both formal and informal, provide a set of rules and norms that guide economic interactions. The sociologists argue that institutional arrangements influence not only individual behavior but also the overall functioning of markets. This perspective aligns with the broader field of economic sociology, which seeks to integrate sociological insights into the study of economic phenomena.

The authors pay particular attention to the concept of "market as a social structure." They argue that markets are not only arenas for economic exchange but also social structures that shape and are shaped by societal values, norms, and power dynamics. This approach challenges the traditional economic view that sees markets primarily as mechanisms for allocating resources efficiently. Instead, Fligstein and Dauter advocate for a more holistic understanding that considers the social and cultural dimensions of markets.

Another crucial element of their work is the examination of market dynamics in relation to globalization. The increasing interconnectedness of markets on a global scale has profound implications for social structures and relationships. Fligstein and Dauter explore how globalization influences the power dynamics within markets, shapes the role of nation-states, and contributes to the emergence of transnational markets.

In conclusion, the Sociology of Markets, as articulated by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter, offers a comprehensive and nuanced perspective on the interplay between markets and society. Their emphasis on socially embedded markets, strategic action fields, and the role of institutions provides a rich framework for understanding the complexities of contemporary market systems. By integrating sociological insights into the analysis of markets, Fligstein and Dauter contribute significantly to a more holistic and interdisciplinary understanding of economic phenomena.

Here are key points about "The Sociology of Markets" by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter in bullet form:

- **Socially Embedded Markets:**

   - Markets are not isolated from society but deeply connected to social structures.

   - Emphasizes the role of relationships, trust, and social networks in shaping market dynamics.

- **Strategic Action Fields:**

   - Describes ongoing struggles and negotiations among various market actors.

   - Focuses on how actors, including firms and regulatory bodies, engage in strategic actions to advance their interests.

- **Institutional Influence:**

   - Institutions, both formal and informal, play a crucial role in shaping market behavior.

   - Rules and norms provided by institutions guide economic interactions at both individual and market levels.

- **Market as a Social Structure:**

   - Views markets not only as economic arenas but also as social structures.

   - Acknowledges that markets shape and are shaped by societal values, norms, and power dynamics.

- **Globalization Impact:**

   - Examines how globalization influences market dynamics.

   - Considers the interconnectedness of global markets and its implications for power dynamics and the role of nation-states.

- **Holistic Understanding:**

   - Advocates for a more comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to studying markets.

   - Challenges traditional economic perspectives by integrating sociological insights.

- **Power Dynamics:**

   - Highlights the power relations, alliances, and conflicts within Mark etc.

   - Recognizes that understanding these dynamics is essential for understanding market structures.

- **Transnational Markets:**

   - Explores the emergence and impact of transnational markets in the context of globalization.

   - Considers how global interconnectedness influences the behavior of market actors.

- **Cultural Dimensions:**

   - Acknowledges the influence of culture on market behavior.

   - Argues that cultural factors are integral to understanding the complexities of market systems.

- **Economic Sociology Alignment:**

   - Aligns with the broader field of economic sociology.

   - Integrates sociological perspectives into the study of economic phenomena.

These points provide a concise overview of the key concepts and contributions of Fligstein and Dauter's work on the Sociology of Markets.

Here are some important points about "The Sociology of Markets" by Neil Fligstein and Luke Dauter:

- The sociology of markets is a field of study that examines the social, cultural, and economic factors that influence the behavior of individuals and groups within markets.

- Markets are not inherent, but rather are socially constructed, meaning they are shaped by the interactions of individuals and groups within a society.

- Cultural factors play a significant role in shaping market behavior, as they influence how individuals perceive value, make decisions, and interact with others within the market.

- Social structures, such as institutions, organizations, and networks, influence the operation of markets by providing the context within which market participants interact and transact.

- Power dynamics between market participants can impact market outcomes and the distribution of resources.

- The increasing interconnectedness of global markets has led to the emergence of new market dynamics, such as the growth of multinational corporations, the rise of emerging markets, and the intensification of competition.

- Technological advancements have transformed the way markets operate, from the advent of the internet and e-commerce to the development of new technologies that enable real-time trading and information sharing.

- The sociology of markets has been one of the most vibrant fields in sociology in the past 25 years.

- The major ideas in the sociology of markets include the social construction of markets, cultural factors, social structures, power dynamics, globalization, and technological advancements.

- The sociology of markets has made significant progress in exploring context as the 'origins, operations, and dynamics of markets as social structures'.

- The “micro-constructionist” perspective on market creation suggests that markets function when producers and consumers establish a stable social organization with roles and niches.

- For any market to function, supply must be brought into contact with demand in "social spaces where repeated exchanges occur".

- The sociology of markets is a multidisciplinary field that seeks to understand the complex interactions between human behavior, social structures, and market forces.

Monday, December 18, 2023

Practice Of Social Change and Development in Asia

Practice Of Social Change and Development in Asia  

Remittances, Migration and Social Development 

A Conceptual Review of the Literature 

Hein de Haas

Hein De Haas has been a prominent scholar in the field of migration studies, and his work often delves into the interconnections between migration, remittances, and social development. Here is a conceptual review of the key themes in the literature:

1. **Remittances and Economic Impact:**

   - Scholars often explore how remittances, which are financial transfers sent by migrants to their home countries, impact the economic development of receiving communities. This includes assessing the role of remittances in poverty alleviation, household income, and local economic development.

2. **Social and Cultural Transformations:**

   - Migration and remittances can bring about social and cultural changes in both sending and receiving communities. Researchers may investigate the impact of migration on family structures, gender roles, and cultural practices.

3. **Developmental Consequences:**

   - The literature may discuss the broader developmental consequences of migration and remittances, considering factors such as education, healthcare, and overall human development indices in the context of remittance-receiving regions.

4. **Migration Policies and Social Development:**

   - De Haas might explore how migration policies, both in sending and receiving countries, influence the social development outcomes associated with migration and remittances. This could involve examining the role of policy frameworks in shaping the impact of migration on communities.

5. **Transnationalism and Social Networks:**

   - Hein De Haas may also focus on the transnational nature of migration and how social networks formed by migrants contribute to social development. This involves looking at how connections between migrants and their home communities shape economic and social outcomes.

6. **Critiques and Challenges:**

   - The literature may address critiques and challenges associated with the optimistic narratives around remittances and social development. This could include discussions on issues like dependency, inequality, and the potential negative consequences of relying heavily on remittances.



The exploration of "Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of The Literature" by Hein De Haas is a journey into the intricate dynamics of how migration, particularly through the flow of remittances, shapes social development. This topic holds particular relevance within the field of sociology as it examines not only the economic dimensions of migration but also its profound social and cultural consequences.

**Background on Hein De Haas:**

Hein De Haas, a luminary in the realm of migration studies, has significantly shaped our understanding of the interplay between migration and societal development. As a professor of Sociology at the University of Amsterdam, his research contributions encompass a diverse range of themes, from the economic impacts of remittances to the social and cultural transformations associated with migration.

**Objectives of the Conceptual Review:**

The overarching objective of this literature review is to glean insights into the multifaceted relationship between remittances, migration, and social development. By delving into De Haas's works, we aim to understand the nuanced connections and uncover the broader implications that extend beyond economic considerations.

**Remittances and Economic Impact:**

One of the central foci of De Haas's research involves examining how remittances, the financial lifelines sent by migrants to their home countries, contribute to the economic development of recipient communities. His work delves into the role of remittances in poverty alleviation, the augmentation of household income, and their influence in fostering local economic development.

**Social and Cultural Transformations:**

Migration is not a mere economic phenomenon; it entails profound social and cultural transformations. De Haas's insights shed light on how migration and the subsequent inflow of remittances influence family structures, redefine gender roles, and contribute to shifts in cultural practices within both sending and receiving communities.

**Developmental Consequences:**

Beyond the immediate economic impacts, migration and remittances have far-reaching consequences for societal development. Hein De Haas's conceptualization extends to factors such as education, healthcare, and overall human development indices within regions that receive remittances.

**Migration Policies and Social Development:**

Understanding the interplay between migration policies and social development outcomes is crucial. De Haas's research explores how policies in both sending and receiving countries shape the impact of migration, providing insights into the regulatory frameworks that influence the development trajectory of communities involved in migration processes.

**Transnationalism and Social Networks:**

Migration is inherently transnational, and De Haas's work delves into the complexities of social networks formed by migrants. These networks, extending across borders, play a pivotal role in shaping social and economic outcomes for both migrants and their home communities.

**Critiques and Challenges:**

In the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding, it is essential to consider critiques and challenges associated with optimistic narratives surrounding remittances. De Haas's research likely engages with issues such as dependency, inequality, and the potential negative consequences that may arise from an overreliance on remittance inflows.


In conclusion, this conceptual review offers a nuanced exploration of remittances, migration, and social development through the lens of Hein De Haas's extensive contributions. The synthesis of economic, social, and cultural dimensions provides a holistic understanding of the complex interplay between migration processes and societal advancement.

**Questions and Discussion:**

As we open the floor to questions and discussion, we invite a thoughtful dialogue on the intricacies uncovered in this conceptual review. It is through such scholarly exchanges that we can further refine our comprehension of the profound implications of remittances and migration on social development.


## Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature by Hein de Haas

**Understanding the Intertwined Worlds:**

Hein de Haas, in his work titled "Remittances, Migration, and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature," delves into the complex relationship between remittances, migration, and social development in developing countries. He offers a comprehensive review of existing literature, building a framework to analyze the intricate ways these elements interact and shape diverse social realities.

**Beyond Sending Money:**

De Haas challenges the simplistic view of remittances as mere financial transfers. He argues that they are embedded within the broader context of migration, serving as a **critical element** in household livelihood strategies. Migrant families often send money back home to support basic needs, education, healthcare, and even entrepreneurial ventures. These remittances become vital lifelines, contributing to **poverty reduction** and improved **living standards**.

**Beyond Individual Benefits:**

The paper extends beyond individual impacts, exploring the potential of remittances to **spur broader social development**. Invested in productive activities, they can stimulate local economies, generate **employment opportunities**, and foster infrastructure development. Remittances can also contribute to **improved education** and **healthcare systems**, leading to an overall rise in human capital and well-being.

**A Complex Landscape:**

However, de Haas acknowledges the multifaceted nature of this relationship. Remittances can sometimes reinforce **inequalities** within communities, with wealthier households benefiting more. Brain drain, where skilled individuals migrate, can leave sending communities with **labor shortages** and hinder long-term development. Additionally, reliance on remittances can create **dependence**, making recipient communities less resilient to economic shocks.

**Navigating the Nuances:**

The paper emphasizes the need for **context-specific** analysis to understand the true impact of remittances on social development. Different factors, such as migration patterns, recipient country policies, and cultural dynamics, need to be considered to develop sustainable development strategies. De Haas calls for **policy interventions** that maximize the positive impacts of remittances while mitigating potential drawbacks.

**In Conclusion:**

"Remittances, Migration, and Social Development" by Hein de Haas is a valuable resource for any Master's Sociology student interested in the intersections of migration, development, and social realities. It provides a nuanced understanding of remittances, moving beyond simplistic narratives to highlight their complex interplay with social structures and their potential to both empower and challenge development paths.


"Remittances, Migration and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature" by Hein De Haas is a comprehensive study that examines the role of migrant remittances in the development of sending countries. The paper can be divided into several key points:

1. **Migration and Development**: The study begins by discussing the relationship between migration and development, highlighting the importance of remittances as a key factor in the development process. It emphasizes that the developmental impact of migration depends on the interaction between migrants and their home communities, as well as the policies and programs implemented by both sending and receiving countries.

2. **Remittances and Poverty Reduction**: De Haas argues that remittances can play a significant role in reducing poverty, as they often flow to the poorest households and are used for basic needs such as food, housing, and education. However, the study also acknowledges that the developmental impact of remittances is not limited to poverty reduction, as they can also be used for infrastructure, health, and other community-level investments.

3. **The Role of Remittances in Development**: The paper explores the various ways in which remittances can contribute to development, including direct investments in infrastructure, health, and education, as well as indirect effects such as gender empowerment and social inclusion. It also discusses the potential trade-offs between different uses of remittances, such as the choice between investing in infrastructure or human capital.

4. **Challenges and Opportunities**: De Haas identifies several challenges in the literature on remittances and development, including the need for better data and more rigorous evaluation methods. He also highlights the potential of digital technologies to transform the way remittances are sent and used, as well as the role of diaspora organizations and networks in facilitating development projects.

5. **Future Research**: The study concludes by suggesting directions for future research on remittances and development. This includes a call for more interdisciplinary and longitudinal research, as well as a focus on the role of digital technologies and diaspora networks in shaping the development impact of remittances.

In summary, De Haas's "Remittances, Migration and Social Development: A Conceptual Review of the Literature" provides a comprehensive overview of the role of migrant remittances in the development of sending countries. By examining the various ways in which remittances can contribute to development, the study highlights the importance of understanding the complex interactions between migration, remittances, and development policies.


Saturday, December 16, 2023

10 myths and facts about rabies

 10 myths and facts about rabies

In Nepal too, Rabies Day is being celebrated by organizing various programs with the basic slogan of 'Adoption of one health, zero death from rabies'. The World Health Organization's Global Strategic Plan aims to reduce human deaths from dog-bite rabies to zero by 2030. In this context, let's analyze the misconceptions and scientific facts about rabies in our society.

Myth-1: Rabies occurs when bitten by a dog or other animal that is aggressive and has fins in its mouth.

Fact: It's normal for dogs to bite when they feel unsafe and scared. This is a natural behavior of dogs. But dogs with rabies will bite any person for no reason. It is also not true that aggressiveness and foaming at the mouth is rabies. While most rabies-infected animals are aggressive, some animals may appear very passive at first. Symptoms such as fever and fatigue are early signs of rabies in animals or humans. An infected animal may have difficulty standing and may suffer from lameness and paralysis.

Myth-2: Rabies is transmitted only through bites.

Fact: Rabies can be transmitted not only by the bite of a dog or other animal with rabies, but also if the saliva of the suspected animal comes into contact with different membranes or wounds of the body.

Misconception-3: If a mouse or rabbit bites you at home, you get rabies.

Fact: Rabies is rarely transmitted to humans from rats and rabbits. Therefore, post-bite rabies vaccine is not required for domestic rabbit and rat bites. However, if bitten by a wild rabbit, mouse or rat species, it is advisable to vaccinate on the advice of an infectious disease specialist.

Myth-4: There is no cure for rabies.

Fact: Rabies is preventable. Vaccines are available for both humans and animals to prevent the spread of rabies. If you have been bitten by an animal suspected of having rabies, the wound should be immediately cleaned thoroughly with soap and water for 10-15 minutes and vaccinated within 24 hours of the bite. But after seeing the symptoms of the disease, it is not possible to treat the rabies disease.

Myth-5: I do not need a post-exposure human rabies vaccine if I am bitten by a vaccinated dog.

Fact: Although this is theoretically true, if the quality of the vaccine, the time of administration, the method and the physical condition of the dog are not suitable, even after vaccination, the dog may develop rabies. Therefore, even if the dog is vaccinated against rabies, it should be consulted by a doctor. A doctor will evaluate the bite wound to determine if a post-exposure vaccine is needed.

  Myth-6: Some people still think that 20 or more abdominal shots are required to treat rabies.

Fact: In today's treatment system, depending on the condition, three vaccinations are usually done on the arm on the day of the bite, on the third day and on the seventh day.

  Misconception-7: Vaccination against rabies in humans increases the risk of getting sick and also affects memory.

Fact: Older human vaccines had some side effects but the new human vaccine that is currently available does not have side effects.

  Myth-8: Pets and non-exposed dogs and cats do not need to be vaccinated against rabies.

Fact: Domesticated dogs can also be at risk of rabies from sneaking out of the house and from wild animals in the neighborhood. Bats or other small wild animals infected with rabies can enter your home and come into contact with your dog at any time. Since rabies is a fatal disease, it is advisable to vaccinate pets and non-exposed dogs and cats against rabies.

Myth-9: Vaccination against rabies in pregnant and lactating women has negative effects on children and should not be vaccinated.

Fact: All modern vaccines are inactivated, safe and effective, so pregnant and lactating women can get the rabies vaccine without harm to the baby.

Myth-10: Young puppies do not need to be vaccinated for bites.

Fact: Puppies born to dogs that have been vaccinated against rabies and have fully developed immunity to rabies have the ability to fight the disease for at least three months of age. Therefore, in general, a dog under three months of age does not need to be vaccinated, but since we do not know much about the mother of the dog we have adopted, it is wise to get vaccinated against rabies even if a young child is bitten by a dog.

Monday, November 6, 2023

Why are the voices of boys and girls different?

 Why are the voices of boys and girls different?

Why are the voices of men and women not the same? Why is every person's voice different? How can you identify a person just by hearing the voice?

This is a very interesting topic.

No matter how many people there are in the world, their voices are not uniform. Children born in the same house, from the womb of the same parents, do not have the same voice. There is something different in the voice. Moreover, male and female voices are very different.

Someone's voice is hoarse, someone's voice is melodious. Someone's voice is small, someone's voice is loud. What is the reason for such diversity in voice?

The sound we make or speak comes from the larynx in the throat. The larynx is called the larynx in medical language.

There are two chords in the larynx, between which the voice comes out through the middle of the air. In other words, sound or sound comes from vibration (vibrate) inside the vocal cords in the upper part of the trachea. The tongue and brain play a special role in speaking the voice that comes in this way in an understandable language or in a language that you want to express.

What is the position of the larynx?

The larynx is divided into two parts from the lower part of the throat. There are two vocal cords inside the larynx. Vocal cords are like strings. Sound is produced by the vibration of the vocal cords. It is located between the trachea and esophagus.

Why is the voice of men and women different?

Just as the physical structure of the face is different, the structure of the mechanism of women and men is also different. Women's vocal cords are shorter than men's. As a result, men's voices are usually thick due to long and thick layers. Whereas women's voice is a bit softer or melodious due to their longer larynx.

Likewise, not all men or women have the same voice. Just as the physical structure and face of a person are different, some are soft, some are sharp, some are pale and some are pale. Whatever the tone is, it is not a problem in itself, it is natural.

Why is someone's voice loud, someone's melodious?

If the structure of the larynx and the pressure on the larynx during breathing are high, a loud sound will be heard. If this pressure is low, the sound will be a bit mellow.

We say how melodious or sweet some people's voice is. In this way, their speaking practice is also one. According to the way people speak continuously, their voice may or may not be sweet. Our tongue, throat, facial bones and brain also play an indirect role in this.

Do people who speak loudly have problems with their larynx?

People who speak loudly and speak for a long time may have problems with the larynx.

Because when we speak loudly or for a long time, there is extra pressure on the larynx. Due to continuous friction, the problem of swelling of the flesh and water blisters occurs.

In the same way, talking in a loud voice can cause infection in the larynx.