Showing posts with label by. Show all posts
Showing posts with label by. Show all posts

Saturday, September 2, 2023

What do you understand by Reductionism and non-reductionism. Discuss with reference.

What do you understand by Reductionism and non-reductionism. Discuss with reference. 

**Reductionism and Non-Reductionism: A Sociological Perspective**

Reductionism and non-reductionism are contrasting philosophical and methodological approaches that have implications for how we understand complex social phenomena. In the field of sociology, these concepts have been central in shaping how researchers approach the study of society and human behavior.


Reductionism refers to the approach of explaining complex phenomena by breaking them down into simpler, more fundamental parts. In sociology, reductionism involves attempting to explain societal phenomena by reducing them to individual-level factors or mechanisms. This approach is rooted in a belief that understanding the behavior of individuals will inherently lead to an understanding of larger social structures and processes.

A classic example of reductionism in sociology can be found in the study of deviance. Early positivist criminologists such as Cesare Lombroso sought to explain criminal behavior by reducing it to individual physical characteristics or traits. This reductionist approach aimed to find a single cause for complex social phenomena, overlooking broader societal factors that contribute to deviance.


Non-reductionism, on the other hand, asserts that complex phenomena cannot be adequately understood solely by breaking them down into their constituent parts. It emphasizes the importance of emergent properties that arise from interactions between various elements. In sociology, non-reductionism emphasizes the significance of social structures, institutions, culture, and historical contexts in shaping individual behavior and societal outcomes.

One prominent sociological perspective that aligns with non-reductionism is symbolic interactionism. This approach focuses on the micro-level interactions between individuals and how meanings are constructed through these interactions. Symbolic interactionists argue that social phenomena cannot be reduced to individual behaviors alone, as the meanings attached to actions and symbols are integral to understanding human behavior within a social context.

**Reference to Social Theory:**

A key reference in the discussion of reductionism and non-reductionism is Émile Durkheim's work on suicide. Durkheim's study aimed to understand the social factors influencing suicide rates. Instead of reducing suicide to individual psychological factors, Durkheim highlighted the importance of social integration and social regulation. He demonstrated that suicide rates were influenced by larger societal structures and norms, showcasing the limitations of reductionism in explaining complex social phenomena.

In contrast, Max Weber's concept of verstehen, or empathetic understanding, emphasizes the need to consider the subjective meanings individuals attach to their actions. This aligns with non-reductionist thinking by highlighting the importance of understanding social actions within their broader cultural and historical contexts.

**Implications for Sociology:**

The debate between reductionism and non-reductionism has profound implications for sociological research and analysis. Reductionism can provide valuable insights into individual behaviors and psychological mechanisms, but it risks oversimplifying complex social processes. Non-reductionism reminds us that societal phenomena are multi-dimensional and interconnected, requiring an understanding of how various elements interact to shape outcomes.

Contemporary sociological research often seeks a balance between these perspectives. Mixed-methods approaches, for example, allow researchers to incorporate both individual-level analyses and broader structural considerations. Moreover, a growing emphasis on intersectionality recognizes that individuals' experiences are shaped by multiple dimensions of identity and social context, highlighting the limitations of reductionism in addressing these complexities.

In conclusion, reductionism and non-reductionism represent two contrasting approaches within sociology for understanding complex social phenomena. While reductionism seeks to break down phenomena into simpler components, non-reductionism emphasizes the importance of emergent properties and broader social contexts. The sociological landscape benefits from incorporating insights from both perspectives, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of the intricate interplay between individual actions and societal structures.

Tuesday, July 25, 2023

How can patients travel by plane?

How can patients travel by plane?

Firstly, airlines generally do not allow sick passengers to board the aircraft. Because the risks are different according to the nature of different diseases. In such a situation, if something suddenly happens to the patient, other than first aid (primary treatment) and oxygen supplement, other hospital facilities are not available on the ship. Therefore, all sick passengers must obtain a 'fit to fly' certificate from the relevant doctor before their flight.

But saying this does not mean that patients should not travel by ship. If depending on the severity of the patient, non-medical and medical service personnel can go with him. Similarly, according to the patient's condition and illness, the medical staff may include nurses, paramedics or doctors.

Are there any special services on the plane for patients?

In-flight medical facilities depend on the size and duration of the flight as well as whether the flight is domestic or international.

If used for short-haul domestic flights, medical facilities are limited to first-aid boxes for small-sized aircraft with a carrying capacity of 20-50 passengers. It contains basic items like bandages, antiseptics, antacids, anti-empties, pain killers etc.

A variety of oral and liquid medications are kept on large planes used for international flights. In addition, such aircraft may have oxygen supplements and portable defibrillators. Such a defibrillator is called AED ie automatic external defibrillator.

A defibrillator is a device that produces an electrical charge or current in the heart to restore (bring) the heartbeat back to normal. A defibrillator is used when the heart stops beating due to cardiac arrest.

How is it taken care of if someone suddenly gets sick on the plane?

It is not the same for everyone, it depends on the disease or complications of the patient. For example, travelers may have panic attacks, which are often seen in Nepali workers returning from the Gulf countries and Malaysia. In such a case, besides reassuring the patient, water, oxygen and tranquilizers are also given.

Another passenger may have breathing problems due to asthma. In such a case, nasal oxygen (supplement oxygen) and bronchodilator inhaler can be provided according to the patient's oxygen level measurement with the oximeter.

In another example, appropriate medication is provided to passengers in case of persistent vomiting or dizziness. In case of acute heart attack, brain hemorrhage or clots, the nearest airport should be taken to the hospital. In conclusion, an attempt is made to handle the health condition of the passengers according to the available resources and staff's ability in the aircraft. If it is not possible, it will be taken to the nearest airport as soon as possible.

What to do if a passenger faints on the plane?

There are many reasons for fainting. If the passenger is unconscious due to panic attack or flight phobia (fear of flying), it is sufficient to monitor pulse rate, oxygen saturation and blood pressure as well as reassure the patient.

Another cause of fainting can be due to high or low blood sugar levels. In that case, blood sugar level can be measured with the help of glucometer. If the patient's blood sugar level is high, supplementary medicine can be given to control the sugar level and if the level is too low, he can be given enough glucose food.

Other causes of fainting can be fasting or drinking too much alcohol. Excessive hyperventilation (extremely nervous and rapid breathing) due to the fear of air travel can also lead to fainting.

In case of unconsciousness, it can be controlled in the following order:

1. It should be kept in an open place without overcrowding.

2. Both legs should be lifted.

3. Blood pressure, pulse rate and oxygen level should be monitored. If there is a cardiac (heart) or cerebrovascular accident, the nearest airport should be taken to the hospital as soon as possible.

Dr. Ranjit Baral

Can a pregnant woman travel on a ship?

There are pregnancy policy tables for air travel. From the said table, it is clear how cases of pregnancy are considered eligible or ineligible for flying.

Up to the 28th week of pregnancy and pregnant women who are in normal condition can easily fly without any restrictions. A person who is after the 28th week of pregnancy is required to obtain a medical certificate of 'fit to fly' from an obstetrician and gynecologist and an airline doctor to board a flight.

Likewise, late pregnancy (after the 35th week of pregnancy) and advanced pregnancy ie 'malposition' (a situation where the baby's head is in the wrong direction in the mother's womb) or 'twin' pregnancy are not allowed.

Are emergency patients carried on board or not?

Even in an emergency, it depends on what kind of situation it is. In case of unplanned cases like accidents, helicopters or small planes are used to rescue sick or injured people. Similarly planned case According to the situation, para-medics and nurses and non-medical staff can be deployed in mild cases. In such cases, medicines (especially given by injection) are given by the staff and the patient is monitored from time to time.

Doctors are deployed in extremely serious situations in anticipation of unpleasant events. For example, on long-haul flights, passengers with long-term asthma may have breathing problems, where steroids and bronchodilators must be given by injection.

What should be done if they have to travel by air?

Commercial airlines are not considered suitable for patients with very serious health conditions. In such cases, air ambulances are used, which are very expensive. But it has nurses and doctors as well as all the facilities of a 'mini-hospital'.

Monday, February 6, 2023

Fistula cannot be cured by medication, surgery is required

Fistula cannot be cured by medication, surgery is required

A fistula is an unnecessary tube that comes out on the outer surface of the body. Fistulas are often seen around the intestines, skin surface, and rectum. Fistula patients have increased recently. The main reason for this is unhealthy eating.

Monday, January 30, 2023

If the tooth is eaten by worms, should it be pulled out or filled with fluoride cement?

If the tooth is eaten by worms, should it be pulled out or filled with fluoride cement?

In recent times, awareness about the disease is increasing among the common citizens. But oral and dental health is not given much attention. Common dental diseases are found in most people. It can happen at any age.

Wednesday, December 14, 2022

Blogger is a popular blogging platform that is owned by Google.

Blogger is a popular blogging platform that is owned by Google 

Blogger is a popular blogging platform owned by Google that allows users to create and manage blogs. It is a free and easy-to-use platform that offers a range of features and tools for creating and publishing blog posts, such as customizable templates, rich text editing, and the ability to add images and videos.

Stephen Boss, also known by his stage name "tWitch," is an American actor, dancer, and television personality.

Stephen Boss, also known by his stage name "tWitch," is an American actor, dancer, and television personality. He was born on September 29, 1982 in Montgomery, Alabama, and grew up in a household filled with music and dance. Boss began dancing at a young age, and his talent and passion for dance quickly became apparent.

Saturday, December 10, 2022

ChatGPT is a large-scale neural network model trained by OpenAI for generating text.

ChatGPT is a large-scale neural network model trained by OpenAI for generating text. It uses a variant of the popular Transformer architecture and is trained on a large amount of data to generate human-like text that can be used in a variety of applications.

Monday, November 21, 2022

Do you eat chow-chow? Take care, let's all see this good advice given by the doctor | These are: Let's know the pros and cons of eating Parsi Munta...

Do you eat chow-chow? Take care, let's all see this good advice given by the doctor

The practice of giving junk food to most of the children by their parents has flourished recently. If the children cry or do not listen to what they say, the practice of giving food to their children is now a problem from villages to cities.

Thursday, September 15, 2022

Traveling by air for the first time? Take care of these things

Traveling by air for the first time? Take care of these things

Traveling on a plane for the first time brings both excitement and fear. What should be considered when boarding the plane? How to board the plane, how to sit, how to fasten the seat belt, what rules to follow may also be causing a kind of stress.

Monday, August 29, 2022

Mahakali Treaty: After 27 years Oli admits 'weakness', these are the three main 'mistakes' made by Nepal

Mahakali Treaty: After 27 years Oli admits 'weakness', these are the three main 'mistakes' made by Nepal

About 27 years after the signing of the Mahakali Treaty, the Chairman of CPN-UML and former Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli, one of the people who played a role in getting the treaty approved by the Parliament, said that "there are some weaknesses" in the treaty.