Wednesday, June 12, 2024

How does the kidney work?

 How does the kidney work?

According to the famous medical journal "The Lancet", by the year 2019, around 700 million people worldwide are suffering from chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is estimated that more than 14 lakhs have lost their lives.

According to a national study based on Global Burden of Disease data (coordinated by Achyutaraj Pandey), 6-7 percent of the total population in Nepal are suffering from chronic kidney disease, while the death rate is two to three per million.

The kidney is an organ that filters out the excess water and impurities in the human body and sends them out of the body through urine. Each bean-shaped kidney is four to five inches long. In which there is a very small filter called nephron. Senior kidney disease expert Prof. This filter will send blood disorders and excess water out of the body. Dr. Divya Singh Shah says.

The kidney's job is to balance fluid levels in the body, filter waste and toxins from the blood, secrete hormones that control blood pressure, activate vitamin D to maintain healthy bones, and produce hormones (which direct the production of red blood cells).

Consultant Urologist Dr. Anil Pukar Sah says, 'Kidney plays an important role in maintaining the balance of minerals (sodium, phosphorus, potassium) in the blood.'

Kidneys filter about 200 liters of blood in 24 hours. In addition to removing the disordered substances in the blood through this process, Dr. Dr. will balance the amount of water in the body by taking out excess water through urine. Shah says.

Structure of kidney

There are two kidneys in the body. Kidneys are located behind the abdomen on both sides of the spine.

In an adult, the kidney is about 10 cm long, 6 cm wide and 4 cm thick. Each kidney weighs about 150 to 170 grams.

What effect does drinking a little water have on the kidneys?

The function of the kidneys is to filter the toxins in the body and remove them with urine. As the process of removing more water from the body - diarrhea, vomiting and sweating, and drinking less water, the blood pressure in the body decreases.

"When the blood pressure drops, the heart cannot circulate blood to the kidneys in the required amount, which affects the work done by the kidneys. Because of this, kidney disease specialist Dr. Nishant Acharya says.

Drinking less water in such a situation increases the risk of accumulating toxins in the body. Which also affects kidney function. In addition, there is a risk of kidney stones, kidney infection and even kidney failure," he says. "Therefore, to keep the kidneys healthy, you should drink three to four liters of water every day."

How does drinking a lot of water affect the kidneys?

As it is said, "If you eat too much of a pill, it will be bitter", Dr. Dr. Acharya says.

If you have to drink three to four liters of water daily, drinking four and a half liters or five liters of water will not have much effect. But drinking a lot of water on a daily basis puts a burden on the kidneys and can cause problems in the kidneys, he says.

A person who already has kidney problems has a reduced ability of the kidneys to filter water. Therefore, such patients should drink less water. Such people should drink water according to the doctor's advice.

Many organs of our body are active 24 hours a day, including the kidneys. Dr. The kidneys are doing their work even while sleeping at night. Acharya says.

Kidney is a careful organ. It can do what the body needs and doesn't need in a natural way," he says. "If someone goes without drinking water for a day, fasts, the kidneys manage the water that the body needs from other parts of the body."

Other causes of kidney problems

Kidney problems can happen to anyone, but people with diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity and those who regularly take pain relievers are at higher risk. Similarly, if someone in the family has a kidney problem, other family members are also likely to have it. Senior nephrologist Prof. Dr. Singh says.

Symptoms of kidney failure

Pvt. Dr. Singh says, 'When you wake up in the morning, swelling of the eyelids, swelling of the ankles, body swelling, sudden weight gain, anemia, laziness, feeling tired, shortness of breath even after walking a little are the symptoms of kidney failure.'

There are also problems like bone pain, frequent urination, not much foam coming out when passing urine, and the color of urine is like tea.

Some kidney problems may not show any symptoms. But sometimes stomach ache, burning urine, fever may occur. If such a problem repeats, it may be a kidney problem," said Dr. Singh says.

What is the treatment for kidney failure?

After kidney failure, you should first go to the hospital and undergo tests to find out which stage it is. In Nepal, most of the people with chronic kidney problems go to the doctor only as a last resort.

There are five stages of kidney failure. The fifth stage is the last stage. Patients up to the fourth stage are cured by taking medicine. If it is in the first stage, it will not go to the second, if it is in the second, it will not go to the third. But medicine should be taken regularly.

But if the patient has reached the last i.e. fifth stage, dialysis and kidney transplant are the only options.

Also read this

What are the symptoms of kidney failure?

10 Interesting Facts About Kidneys

- An adult's kidney weighs 142 grams. It is equal to a human fist.

- The largest kidney stone found so far is 1.1 kg.

- The right kidney is just below the liver and it is the largest human internal organ. The left kidney is smaller than the right one.

- There are 1.1 million cells in the kidney. These are called nephrons. If they are connected and made like a rope, it will be eight kilometers long.

- Kidney cleans the blood 400 times a day.

- If the blood pressure in the human body is low, the kidneys give a message to constrict the blood vessels.

- Kidney cleans 1.3 liters of blood every minute.

- The biggest cause of stones is not drinking enough water.

- 25 percent of the total blood in the body goes from the heart to the kidneys.

- During a kidney transplant, the new kidney is placed inside the pelvis. It is not necessary to remove the old kidney.

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